Ancient Egypt

         

Page by Anneke Bart




 

Kings and Queens
11th dynasty
Mentuhotep I
Intef I Sehertawy
Intef II Wahankh
Intef III
Nakhtnebtepnefer
Mentuhotep II Nebhepetre
Mentuhotep III Sankhare
Mentuhotep IV Nebtawyre


12th dynasty
Amenemhat I (Sehetepibre)
Senusret I Kheperkare
Amenemhat (II) Nubkaure
Senusret (II) Khakheperre
Senusret (III) Khakaure
Amenemhat (III) Nimaatre
Amenemhat (IV) Maakherure
Queen Sobeknefru Sobekkare


18th dynasty
Ahmose
Amenhotep I
Tuthmosis I
Tuthmosis II
Queen Hatshepsut
Tuthmosis III
Amenhotep II
Tuthmosis IV
Amenhotep III
Queen Tiye
Akhenaten
Queen Nefertiti
inscriptions Queen Nefertiti.
Queen Kiya

Smenkhare
Tutankhamen
Aye
Horemheb


19th dynasty
Ramesses I
Sety I
Queen Mut-Tuya,
Ramses II

Queen Nefertari
Queen Isetnofret  
Queen Bint-Anath  
Queen Merytamen  
Queen Henutmire
Queen Nebettawy
Prince Khaemwaset
Temples - Ramesses II
Merneptah
Seti II, Amenmesse,
Siptah, and Tawosret 


20th dynasty

Sethnakht
Ramesses III

Ramesses IV - XI


Cleopatra VII Philopator

Old Kingdom Queens (Dyn 1-6)
Middle Kingdom Queens (Dyn 11-13)
New Kingdom Queens (Dyn 16-20)


 

Officials, Priesthood etc.
Viziers (New Kingdom)
High Priests of Amun
God's Wives of Amun
High Priests of Ptah
Viceroys of Nubia
Who's who of New Kingdom


Amarna Period
Akhenaten
Queen Nefertiti
inscriptions Queen Nefertiti.
Queen Kiya

Smenkhare
Tutankhamen
Tombs at Amarna
Houses at Amarna

 
Tombs:
Valley of the Kings,
Valley of the Queens
Theban Tombs,
Tombs at Abydos
Tombs at El Kab
Tombs in Aswan
Early dynastic Saqqara
New Kingdom Saqqara
The Unis Cemetary

 
Mastabas at the Giza Plateau
Giza Mastabas 1000 cemetary
Giza Mastaba 2000 cemetary
Giza Mataba 2300 cemetary
Giza Mastaba 4000 cemetary
Giza Mastaba 5000 cemetary
Giza Mastaba 6000 cemetary
Giza Mastaba 7000 cemetary
 

Mummy Caches
Tomb DB320
Tomb KV35


The Tombs at Amarna

By Anneke Bart

 

 

Amenhotep IV changed his name to Akhenaten in ca year 5 of his reign and moved the capital of Ancient Egypt to Akhet-Aten, sometimes called (el) Amarna in modern times. With the move of the living to Akhet-Aten there was also a change of necropolis. Before the move most nobles would expect to be buried in either the Theban necropolis or in the Memphite necropolis of Saqqara. After the move a new necropolis was created in the eastern cliffs that surround the city. This was strange in and of itself. The burial places were usually associated with the west bank of the river Nile, but with the religious changes wrought by Akhenaten, this seems to have also changed.

There are three areas of burial: The northern tombs (nr 1-6) of some close associates of the King, the southern tombs (nr 7-25) of some of the nobles, and the royal wadi (nr 26 - 30). Below is a list of the tombs with mention of some of the pertinent information.



One of the boundary stela from Amarna.
(Photograph by Yuti)

Northern Tombs

Nr. 1. Huya, the favorite of the Lord of the Two Lands, the overseer of the royal quarters of the Great King's Wife Tiye, treasurer and steward in the house of the King's Chief Wife, Tiye.

In the tomb we see Baketaten with her mother Tiye.

Huya is also appointed as standard-bearer of the troop of young fighters called 'Aten Appears for him'. In other scenes he is shown overseeing the craftsmen and others who serve under him. Mentioned in the tomb are the scribe of the House of Charm, Nakhtiu and the Overseer of the sculptors of the king's chief wife Tite, named Iuti-Iuti.

Huya also mentions his wife Wenher, and his mother Tuy. In other scenes there is mention of two possible sisters of Huya, by the name of Nebet and Kherpu(t).

            
The King and Queen carried in a sedan chair.             Akhenaten and Nefertiti entertaining Queen Tiye.          
 

South Wall, East Side: Tiye sitting at meal with Akhenaten and Nefertiti
Akhenaten and Nefertiti are seated on the left. Akhnaten seems to wear a khat headdress and Nefertiti a short Nubian style wig. Next to Nefertiti seated on small chairs are Meritaten and one of her sisters - possibly Neferneferuaten-tasherit. Queen Tiye is shown opposite the King and Queen. She is seated and wears the double plumed headdress with the horned sundisk. She is accomponaied by her daughter Baketaten, who is seated next to her on a small chair.
South Wall, West(?) Side: Tiye sitting at meal with Akhenaten and Nefertiti
Tiye is seated on the left. She wears a tripartite wig, topped with a modius and the double plumes with the horned sun-disk. Baket aten is shown standing next to Tiye.
On the right Akhenaten and Nefertiti are seated and shown drinking from cups. Ankhesenpaaten is shown standing on the footstool in front of Nefertiti, while another princess (Meketaten?) stands next to Neferiti and looks as though she's helping herself to some fruit. Nefertiti is called: "The heiress, great of favor, lady of grace, charming in loving-kindness, mistress of South and North, the Great wife of the King whom he loves, the Lady of the Two Lands, (Nefertiti)|, living for ever and ever."
East wall: Akhenaten leading Tiye to a temple.
Akhenaten, Tiye and Baketaten are shown as they enter a temple. Nefertiti and her daughters are not shown in this scene.
West Wall: Akhenaten and Nefertiti on the State Palanquin
Akhenaten and Nefertiti are shown being carried on a sedan chair. Akhenaten appears to be wearing the red crown of the north and holding a crook and flail(?). Meritaten and Meketaten are shown walking behind the sedan chair. They are attended by two nurses and six female attendants.
North Wall, West Side: Huya rewarded
Huya appears before Akhenaten and Nefertiti to receive his reward. Two princesses are shown in the palace.
North Wall, East Side: Huya rewarded
Huya appears before Akhenaten and Nefertiti to receive his reward. Two princesses are shown in the palace. The princesses are identified as Meritaten and Meketaten.
North Wall, Lintel: The royal families
On the left hand side we see Akhenaten and Nefertiti seated. Nefertiti turns toward Akhenaten. Akhenaten is shown wearing the khepresh crown and Nefertiti a short wig. Before them we see Meritaten, Meketaten, Ankhesenpaaten and Neferneferuaten-tasherit. All four girls are holding plume shaped wands.
On the right we see Amenhotep III seated opposite Queen Tiye who is accompanied by Baketaten. Three female attendants are shown behind Tiye.


Nr. 2. Meryre (II) The king's scribe, Overseer of the houses in the royal quarters of the Great Royal Wife Neferneferuaten-Nefertiti, steward.

On the east wall of the main chamber is a scene depicting the tribute of 'the chieftains of every foreign land'. Akhenaten and Nefertiti are shown sitting on a throne in a kiosk with all six of their daughters standing behind them. This tribute takes place in year 12 (second month of the seed season, day 8, to be precise).

      
Line drawing of part of the scene and a painting of the entire tribute scene.

South Wall West Side: The Queen filling the King's cup.
Nefertiti is shown standing before a seated Akhenaten, pooring a drink through a sieve for the king. Meritaten stands between Akhenaten and Nefertiti, facing her father and offering him something. Behind Nefertiti we see Meketaten offering a perfume cone, while Ankhesenpaaten offers a bouquet of flowers. Below this scene we see female musicians and male servants.

South Wall, East Side: Reward of Meryra
Meryra is shown before the window of appearance. Akhenaten and Nefertiti are shon handing out collars of gold. In the palace behind the window we see Merytaten and Meketaten handing gold collars to their mother. Ankhesenpaaten is shown standing before Neferneferuaten-tasherit and Neferneferure. Ankhesenpaaten is shown wearing large earrings and three bracelets on each arm. She also appears to be wearing a rather elaborate cape or collar.
East Wall: Presentation of tribute.
Akhenaten and Nefertiti are shown sitting on a throne holding hands. Their six daughters are shown behind them. Meritaten, Meketaten and Ankhesenpaaten are shown holding hands. Neferneferuaten is holding something in her hands. Neferure is hown holding a gazelle. The youngest daughter, Setepenre, holds a bouquet of flowers while petting the gazelle her older sister is holding.
North Wall East Side: Meryre rewarded by the King
Meryre is shown before "The Lord of the Two Lands (Ankheperure)| Son of Re (Smenkhare- Dejeser-Kheperu)| and the great Royal Wife (Meritaten)|."


Nr. 3. Ahmose The sealbearer of the King of Lower Egypt, The sole companion, the attendant of the Lord of the Two Lands., the favorite of the good god, true king's scribe, , Steward in the house of Akhenaten, Overseer of the front hall of the Lord of the Two Lands (=court of justice?), Fanbearer at the right hand of the king.

 

West Wall: Akhenaten and Nefertiti riding a chariot.
Akhenaten and Nefertiti are shown together in a chariot accompanied by one of their daughters. Akhenaten wear a khepresh crown, while Nefertiti is shown wearing her flat topped blue crown.
West Wall, Lower half: The royal family eating
Akhenaten is shown seated eating what looks like a roasted duck. Behind him we see Nefertiti seated with one of the princesses on her lap. She is holding meat. Next to Nefertiti we see two more princesses seated on chairs.


Nr. 4. Meryre (I)  Greatest of seers of the Aten in Akhet-Aten, Fanbearer on the right of the king, one praised by the Lord of the Two Lands, the sealbearer of the King of Lower Egypt, the sole companion. His wife Tenro was a great favorite of the Lady of the Two Lands.

 

South Wall,West side: Investiture of Meryra as High Priest
Akhenaten, Nefertiti and Merytaten are shown in the window of appearance. The scene is much damaged and the figures of the king, queen and princess have been erased.
West Wall and North Wall west side: Royal visit to the temple
Akhenaten and Nefertiti are shown riding their chariots. Akhenaten appears to be wearing the Khepresh crown and Nefertiti the flat topped blue crown. They are accompanied by an armed escort. Behind Akhenaten and Nefertiti we see two registers depicting the royal princesses riding chariots in pairs, followed by chariots with female carrying plume shaped fans. In the top register we see Ankhesenpaaten and Neferneferuaten-tasherit and in the lower register we see Meritaten and Meketaten. All four princesses are shown dressed as adults in the long gowns we see typically on women. Their hair is dressed in the Amarna type hairdo where a large bunch is tied up with a ribbon and allowed to hang over one ear, while the rest is worn short.

South Wall, East side: The royal family offering to the sun
Akhenaten and Nefertiti are shown before a large offering table. Akhenaten seems to be wearing his Khepresh crown. Nefertiti wears a blue cap. Her dress is tied with a red sash. Akhenaten and Nefertiti are followed by Meritaten and Meketaten, who are shown shaking a sistrum.
Upper half of East wall and of North wall, East side: Royal family worshipping at the temple
In the upper register Akhenaten elevates the sekhem scepter before the god. The head-dress of the King is destroyed, but we can see that Nefertiti's head-dress was surmounted by the great double feathers with a disk. Akhenaten and Nefertiti are accompanied by four princesses carrying sistra. Only the fourth princess, Neferneferuaten-tasherit, is explicitly named. The princesses are followed by four female attendants carrying plume shaped fans.
Lower half of East wall and of North wall, East side: Meryra rewarded by the King.
The King receives Meryra in the outer court of the granary. The King is depicted leaning on a staff and wearing what appears to be a short Nubian wig. Nefertiti stands behind the King wearing a close fitting cap with a uraeus on her brow. Two princesses are shown in attendance. The second princess clasping the arm of her older sister.


Nr. 5. Pentu The sealbearer of the King of Lower Egypt, the sole companion, the attendant of the Lord of the Two Lands, the favorite of the good god, king's scribe, the king's subordinate, First servant of the Aten in the mansion of the Aten in Akhetaten, Chief of physicians, chamberlain.

North Wall, Upper Scene: The royal family entering the temple
Akhenaten and Nefertiti are shown entering with three of their daughters: Meritaten, Meketaten and most likely Ankhesenpaaten. A similar scene but showing the rewards of Pent must have appeared to the right, but the scene is rather badly damaged.  The King and Queen must have been shown with their daughters, but the Queen's image is badly damaged and the daughters are missing altogether.
North Wall, Lower Scene: The royal family rewarding Pentu
Akhenaten is shown wearing the read crown and Nefertiti stands behind him (the upper half of her body is damaged). Behind the royal couple we see three Princesses accompanied their nurse(s).
The King and Queen having a meal
Akhenaten is shown wearing a khat headdress. He is seated and is eating fowl. Nefertiti is seated behind him, wearing her blue crown and seems to be drinking from a cup.


Nr. 6. Panhesy, First servant of the Aten in the house of  Aten in Akhet-Aten, Second prophet of the Lord of the Two Lands Neferkheprure-Waenre (Akhenaten), the sealbearer of the King of Lower Egypt. Overseer of the storehouse of the Aten in Akhetaten, Overseer of cattle of the Aten in Akhet-Aten.

On one of the ceilings Panehesy mentions receiving gold from the king for doing a great thing for his lady, the king's daughter.

Panehesy's wife was named Iabka.
Jambs Outer door:
The upper panel shows the King with the crown of the North on the left and the crown of the south on the right. On the left Akhenaten is followed by Nefertiti wearing a Khat headdress. Both seem to be offering loaves (?). On the right Nefertiti wears her blue crown. In these scenes only Merutaten seems to accompany her parents.
Below these scenes we see Akhenaten wearing the kepresh crown and Nefertiti wearing her blue crown again apparently offering food from the offering table.
Lintel Outer door:
Below that we have a double scene showing Akhenaten and Nefertiti with their three eldest daughters before an altar. On the left Akhenaten and Nefertiti are both shown buring incense. Nefertiti wears her flat topped blue crown while Akhenaten is shown wearing his khepresh crown. On the right hand side of the scene Akhenaten still wears the same crown, but Neefertiti is now shown wearing a close fitting cap. The king and queen are shown pouring something from a vase. The three princesses are shown shaking sistra. The presenc3e of two dwarfs ponts to the presence of Nefertiti's sister Mutnodjemet, who is probably depicted in the register above and to the side of the princesses.

Thickness of Outer wall:
On the right hand side Akhenaten and Nefertiti raise sekhem scepters, giving homage to the sun. They are accompanied by Meritaten, Meketaten and Ankhesenpaaten, shaking a sistrum. The king wears the Khepresh crown. Nefertiti's image is too heavily damaged to determine her headdress. The Queen's figure is accompanied by rather elaborate titulary:
"The heiress, great of favor, mistress of the district of the South and the North, fair of face and gay with the two feathers, soothing the heart of the King at home (?), pleased at all that is said, the great and beloved wife of the King, Lady of the Two Lands (Nefertiti)|"
 On the right hand side we see the King burning spices in a hawk headed censing-spoon, while the queen presents a bouquet of lotus flowers. Both wear an elaborate Atef-crown. Akhenaten wears a triple Atef crown flanked by uraei and topped with falcons wearing a sundisk and accompanying a double cartouche. Nefertiti wears a double Atef-crown flanked by two uraei. This crown is worn on a uraeus shaped modius and on top of what looks like a khat headdress. In the register below this scene we see the Queen's sister Mutnodjemet accompanied by her two dwarves , two male attendants and four female attendants.Nefertiti's titulary is given as follows:
"The heiress, great of favor, mistress of all women - when she sayeth anything it is done - the great and beloved wife of the King, Lady of the Two Lands (Nefertiti)| living for ever and ever"
South Wall, West Side: Panehesy rewarded
Panehesy appears before the window of appearance. Meritaten appears in the window with Akhenaten and Nefertiti. Nefertiti is shown with her arm around her daughter. Meketaten and Ankhesenpaaten are shown embracing each other in the hall behind the window of appearance. Neferneferuaten-tasherit is shown clasping Ankhesenpaaten's arm. The princesses are accompanied by two nurses.
South Wall, East Side: Royal family offering to the Aten
Akhenaten and Nefertiti are shown offering flowers to the Aten. Akhenaten is depicted with the red crown of the North while Nefertiti seems to be wearing a short Nubian style wig (?). Meritaten, Meketaten, Ankhesenpaaten and Nefernefeuaten-tasherit are shown behing their parents. It is not clear what the older princesses are offering, but Ankhesenpaaten and Nefeneferuaten-tasherit are shown carrying bouquets of flowers just like their parents.
East Wall: Royal Family driving out.
Akhenaten and Nefertiti are each shown driving their own chariot. Both seem to be wearing a blue crown. Nefertiti is shown with a whip held in her left hand. There are two chariots carrying two princesses each. Most likely Meritaten, Meketaten, Ankhesenpaaten and Nefernefeuaten-tasherit. There are also three chariots carrying six female attendants.
West Wall: Royal Family at the temple
Akhenaten and Nefertiti are shown side by side on a raised platform before an altar. Nefertiti is shown to the left of Akhenaten and is only indicated by an outline. They seem to be pooring something onto the altar. Meritaten is shown offering loaves, while Meketaten and Ankhesenpaaten shake a sitrum. The princesses are accompanied by two nurses and three attendants.
North wall: The King and Queen Worshipping.
This scene was much damaged during the Coptic period. Akhenaten is shown holding up a plate with food offerings. Nefertiti stands behind him either holding up her hands or possibly offering up flowers or food which can no longer be seen.

 

Southern Tombs

Nr. 7. Parennefer pure handed cupbearer of the king's Person,

His wife (name lost)  a favorite of the King's Chief Wife Neferneferuaten Nefertiti.

 

Parennefer rewarded by the King and Queen.

Facade: Akhenaten, Nefertiti, Meritaten, Meketaten (and on the left Ankhesenpaaten) offering to the Aten.

North Thickness: Akhenaten, Nefertiti and three daughters offer to the Aten. Akhenaten seems to wear a Khepresh Crown, Nefertiti is depicted wearing a Nubian wig.

South Thickness: Parennefer offers a prayer.

West Wall: Award Scene showing Akhenaten and Nefertiti in the window of Appearances. Meritaten, Meketaten, Ankhesenpaaten and the Queen's Sister Mutnodjemet are shown in the palace in a room behind the window.

East Wall: The King gives and audience to Parennefer.



Nr. 8. Tutu  Chamberlain of the Lord of the Two Lands, the overseer of all that the Lord of the Two Lands, Overseer of gold and silver of the Lord of the Two Lands, treasurer of Aten in the house of the Aten in Akhetaten, the district overseer,  chief servitor of Neferkheperure-Waenre (Akhenaten) in the house of Aten in Akhet-Aten

 South Thickness: Tutu recited hymn to the Aten

North Thickness: Akhenaten and Nefertiti offering to the Aten. Akhenaten holds up two (hes?)-vases and Nefertiti holds two cups with incense (?). They are followed by a female fan-bearer., two men holding ostrich fans and then 4 more female fan-bearers. Underneath we see Tutu praying.

West Wall, North Side: Akhenaten and Nefertiti receive Tutu in front of the window of appearance. Akhenaten sits on a stool and his Khepresh crown is encircled with a row of uraei. Behind the king we see Nefertiti with at least two daughters on her lap. The inscriptions mention Meritaten and Ankhesenpaaten. The image of the Queen has been removed. In the register below the King and Queen we see the Queen's Sister Mutnodjemet with her two dwarfs, several fanbearers and the nurses of the Princesses.

West Wall, South Side: Tutu receives a promotion from the King. Tutu appears before the window of appearance. The image of the Queen has been removed, but above the missing rectangular region we see inscriptions mentioning the princesses Meritaten, Meketaten and Ankhesenpaaten.

Another scene shows Tutu receiving the congratulations of his friends.


Nr. 9. Mahu Chief of the Medjay (police) of Akhetaten

Mahu is shown doing his work, and then reporting to the Vizier in Akhet-Aten (presumably Nakhtpaaten). Mahu is shown traveling in a chariot, inspecting a squad of Medjay police.

Scenes also show an escort including the Vizier, the Chief of the Medjay accompanying the royal family who are traveling in a chariot and are leaving a temple.
North Thickness, The Royal Family worshipping Aten.
Akhneaten, wearing the Khepresh crown is followed by Nefertiti wearing her blue crown and holding a sekhem scepter. She is followed by Meritaten.
North End Wall Stela: Akhenaten and Nefertiti worshipping.
Akhenaten stands before the altar with raised hands. Nefertiti, wearing the blue crown, stands behind Akhenaten. She seems to hold flowers in her hand. Meritaten accompanies the royal couple.
Back Wall, South Side: The royal Chariot leaving the temple.
Akhenaten and Nefertiti are shown riding a chariot together. In another scene the royal chariot is shown passing the sentries. Akhenaten and nefertiti are shown wearing their respective blue crowns and are accompanied by princess Meritaten.
South End Wall, False door: The royal family offering to the Aten.
Akhenaten and Nefertiti are shown in the lunette offering trays of food to the Aten. A princess, Meritaten most likely, stands behind them shaking a sistrum.


Nr. 10. Apy (Ipy?) King's scribe, the overseer of the large inner palace of the pharaoh, the steward

Apy is also known from Thebes. He came from a prominent Memphite family, and was related to the Vizier Ramose. Ramose was also City Overseer (of Memphis) and married to Meritptah. Ramose served Akhenaten when he was known as Amenhotep IV.
Entrance: The royal family making votive offerings to the Aten.
Akhenaten and Nefertiti are shown offering votive items - cartouches of the Aten flanked by small statue(s) - to the Aten. Meritaten, Meketaten and Ankhesenpaaten are shown behind their parents shaking sistra.


Nr. 11. Ramose  Scribe of Recruits, General of the Lord of the Two Lands, the king's scribe, Steward of the house of Nebmaatre (Amenhotep III)

Entrance: The royal family offering to the Aten
Akhenaten and Nefertiti are shown with Princess Meritaten. Akhenaten holds an incense burner, while Nefertiti offers a container of ointment(?)


Nr. 12. Nakht(paaten) Hereditary prince, count, sealbearer, overseer of the city and vizier, overseer of the work projects in Akhet-Aten.

 

Nr. 13. Neferkheprehersekheper  Mayor of Akhetaten

 

Nr. 14. May The hereditary Prince and Count, the sealbearer of the king of Upper and Lower Egypt, the sole companion, the true king's scribe, General of the Lord of the Two LandsSteward of the house of 'Pacifying the Aten', Scribe of Recruits, Steward of Waenre (Akhenaten) in Heliopolis, Overseer of the cattle of the house of Re in Heliopolis, Overseer of all works of the king, Fanbearer on the right hand of the king

Royal Family worship the Aten.
Akhenaten offers up incense, while Nefertiti offers a jar. Akhneaten and Nefertiti are accompanied by three princesses. Meritaten and Meketaten are named as the two princesses in the lower register, The third princes depicted above them is most likely Ankhesenpaaten. All three are shown shaking a sistrum. Above the princesses we see the Queen's sister Mutnodjemet accompanied by her two dwarfs.
 

Nr. 15. Suty Standard-bearer of the company of Neferkheprure-Waenre (Akhenaten)

 

Nr. 18. - Anonymous  only the facade of the tomb was completed.

 

Nr. 19. Sutau  Treasurer of the Lord of the Two Lands

 

Nr. 20 - Anonymous 

The lintel shows the royal family adoring the Aten. We see the same scene on the left and the right but in mirror image.  Akhenaten is shown on both sides wearing the khepresh crown. Nefertiti and her daughters were never carved. The inscriptions show that Nefertiti was supposed to follow her husband, followed by Meritaten, Meketaten and Akhesenpaaten. Behind the princesses we see the Queen's sister Mutnodjemet.

 

Nr. 22 - Anonymous 

The lintel shows the royal family adoring the Aten. Akhenaten is shown wearing the khepresh crown. Nefertiti, wearing her blue crown, followed her husband, followed by three princesses, probablyMeritaten, Meketaten and Akhesenpaaten. Behind the princesses we see the Queen's sister Mutnodjemet.


Nr. 23 - Any  True king's scribe, scribe of the offering table of the Lord of the Two Lands,  Scribe of the Aten's offering table on behalf of the Aten in the house of Aten in Akhet-Aten, Steward of the House of Aakheprure [Amenhotep II]

Mentioned in the tomb are Any's wife Awy[..] and his servant and agent called Meryre.

The tomb contains six votive stelae. They are from:

Pakha, the overseer of the works;

Nebwawi, a scribe,

Anymen, servant of the king's scribe Any,

Tchay, the charioteer of the king's scribe Any.

Ptahmay, the brother of Any

Iay, a servant.

 

24. Paatenemheb King's scribe, General of the Lord of the Two Lands, Steward of the Lord of the Two Lands

 

25. Ay The favorite of the good god, Fanbearer on the right of the King, True King's Scribe, God's Father (it netjer), The commander of all the horses of his Person, The confidante throughout the entire land.

Tiyi, the favorite of the good god, The Nurse of the King's Chief Wife, Neferneferuaten Nefertiti, the king's ornament

In the tomb we also see Mutnodjemet, the Queen's Sister. Her figure is lost, but her presence can be inferred from the presence of her two dwarfs Hemetniswerneheh and Mutef-Pre.

 
Reward scene showing Aye and Teye receiving gifts from Akhenaten, Nefertiti, Meretaten, Meketaten and Ankhesenpaaten.
On the right Aye and Teye praying (before the Aten).


       
Photographs from the tomb of Aye (courtesy Yuti)

 

On doorjambs: Mentions the King, Queen, Aye and Tiye.

Ceiling inscriptions: mentions the King. Queen, and Aye

East Thickness; upper register: Akhenaten, Nefertiti, the three eldest daughters sacrifice to the Aten and are followed by the Queen's Sister Mutnodjemet (shown in register above the princesses). Akhenaten wears the Khepresh Crown while Nefertiti wears an Atef-crown. Akhenaten and Nefertiti both hold a wand.

Titles of the Queen (Lepsius/Hay): The heiress, great in favor, lady of grace, sweer of love, Mistress of South and North, fair of face, gay with the two plumes, beloved of the living Aten, the Chief wife of the King whom (he) loves, Lady of the Two Lands, great of love, (Nefertiti)|, living forever and ever.

West thickness: Hymn of the Aten
North Wall; East Side: Reward Scene.
Aye and Tiye are shown before the window of appearances. Akhenaten is shown in a Khepresh crown and Nefertiti in her well-known blue crown (in this case decorated with three uraei. Meretaten, Meketaten and Ankhesenpaaten are shown in the window of appearances as well. The eldest two seem to be throwing rewards to Aye and Tiye, while Ankhesenpaaten stands on the pillow before Nefertiti and is caressing her chin. The royal figures appear nude in the scene but this may be due to the fact that the clothes were meant to be painted on.
To the left of the window of appearance we see the palace and part of the harem depicted. In some of the rooms we see harem girls playing music while guards (or servants?) are posted outside their apartments.

The Royal Wadi

26. The Royal Tomb: Akhenaten, Meketaten, Kiya, Tiye, Nefertiti?, Pieces of the granite sarcophagi of Akhenaten, Tiye and Meketaten were found in the tomb. The finds in tomb suggests that Akhenaten (main burial room) and Meketaten (room gamma) were definitely buried there. In all likelihood Kiya was buried in the royal tomb as well (room alpha) as was Tiye. It is possible that Nefertiti was buried here as well. Some of the larger 'suites' added to the tomb may have been meant for her.

The funerary chamber shows Akhenaten and Nefertiti offering.

  

Wall of the funeral chamber showing the King and the Queen Offering
(Photographs by Thierry Benderitter)

Room Alpha may have been the burial chamber of Kiya? There are offering scenes on the wall, but also a scene showing the death of a royal person and a baby being carried away by a wet-nurse (?).
 
Offering scene from room A

Room Gamma shows another death scene. This is the burial room of Princess Beketaten.
 
Mourning scene with close-up of the child carried by a wet-nurse on the right.
(Photographs by Thierry Benderitter)

   
A line drawing of the overall scene.  On the right: Mourners room gamma.
(Photographs by Thierry Benderitter)

27. Unknown. Unfinished tomb possibly meant for a member of the royal family?

 

28. Mnevis Bull? The sacred Mnevis bull was thought to be an incarnation of the god Atum. This tomb resembles the tombs used for the Apis Bulls in Saqqara, and the remains of a bull or oxen were at the dumpsite for materials from tomb 28. At first these remains were thought to be part of an offering, but it's possible they were the actual remains of the sacred bull.

 

29. Princes Neferneferura?. A fragment of an amphora was found with text identifying the object as belonging to the inner (burial) chamber of Neferneferure. The burial of the princess in this separate tomb may imply that she died some time after her father Akhenaten.

 

30. Unknown. Small tomb, likely meant for a private individual.

 

 

Sources/Suggested Reading:

1. Aldred, C., Akhenaten: Pharaoh of Egypt, London & New York, 1988

2. Breasted, J.H. Ancient Records of Egypt, Vol2, The eighteenth dynasty. Chicago 1906 (reprinted in 2001)
3. Norman De Garis Davies, with a foreword by Barry Kemp,

  • The rock tombs of el-Amarna, Parts I and II: Part 1 The tomb of Meryra & Part 2 The tombs of Panehesy and Meyra II, Egypt Exploration Society (2004)
  • The rock tombs of el-Amarna, Parts III and IV: Part 3 The tombs of Huya and Ahmes & Part 4 The tombs of Penthu, Mahu, and Others Egypt Exploration Society (2004)
  • The rock tombs of el-Amarna, Parts V and VI: Part 5 Smaller tombs and boundary stelae & Part 6 Tombs of Parennefer, Tutu and Ay, Egypt Exploration Society (2004)

4. Dodson A. and Hilton D. The Complete Royal Families of Ancient Egypt, London 2004

5. Murnane, W.J., Texts from the Amarna Period in Egypt, Atlanta, 1995

6. Reeves,C,  Akhenaten, Egypt's False Prophet, 2002 Dutch edition, (original: Thames and Hudson, 2001)

7. Tyldesley, J., Nefertiti: Egypt's Sun Queen, London, 1998

 












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