Ancient Egypt

         

Page by Anneke Bart





Kings and Queens
11th dynasty
Mentuhotep I
Intef I Sehertawy
Intef II Wahankh
Intef III
Nakhtnebtepnefer
Mentuhotep II Nebhepetre
Mentuhotep III Sankhare
Mentuhotep IV Nebtawyre


12th dynasty
Amenemhat I (Sehetepibre)
Senusret I Kheperkare
Amenemhat (II) Nubkaure
Senusret (II) Khakheperre
Senusret (III) Khakaure
Amenemhat (III) Nimaatre
Amenemhat (IV) Maakherure
Queen Sobeknefru Sobekkare


18th dynasty
Ahmose
Amenhotep I
Tuthmosis I
Tuthmosis II
Queen Hatshepsut
Tuthmosis III
Amenhotep II
Tuthmosis IV
Amenhotep III
Queen Tiye
Akhenaten
Queen Nefertiti
inscriptions Queen Nefertiti.
Queen Kiya

Smenkhare
Tutankhamen
Aye
Horemheb


19th dynasty
Ramesses I
Sety I
Queen Mut-Tuya,
Ramses II

Queen Nefertari
Queen Isetnofret  
Queen Bint-Anath  
Queen Merytamen  
Queen Henutmire
Queen Nebettawy
Prince Khaemwaset
Temples - Ramesses II
Merneptah
Seti II, Amenmesse,
Siptah, and Tawosret 


20th dynasty

Sethnakht
Ramesses III

Ramesses IV - XI


Cleopatra VII Philopator

Old Kingdom Queens (Dyn 1-6)
Middle Kingdom Queens (Dyn 11-13)
New Kingdom Queens (Dyn 16-20)



Officials, Priesthood etc.
Viziers (New Kingdom)
High Priests of Amun
God's Wives of Amun
High Priests of Ptah
Viceroys of Nubia
Who's who of New Kingdom


Amarna Period
Akhenaten
Queen Nefertiti
inscriptions Queen Nefertiti.
Queen Kiya

Smenkhare
Tutankhamen
Tombs at Amarna
Houses at Amarna

Tombs:
Valley of the Kings,
Valley of the Queens
Theban Tombs,
Tombs at Abydos
Tombs at El Kab
Tombs in Aswan
Early dynastic Saqqara
New Kingdom Saqqara
The Unis Cemetary

Mastabas at the Giza Plateau
Giza Mastabas 1000 cemetary
Giza Mastaba 2000 cemetary
Giza Mataba 2300 cemetary
Giza Mastaba 4000 cemetary
Giza Mastaba 5000 cemetary
Giza Mastaba 6000 cemetary
Giza Mastaba 7000 cemetary

Mummy Caches
Tomb DB320
Tomb KV35

The Mummy Cache found in DB320

By Anneke Bart

 

   Two caches of royal mummies were discovered in the 1881. One is often referred to as the Deir-el-Bahari Cache DB320. This cache consists of some 36 mummies found in Thebes. The tomb is sometimes labeled as TT320.
     The tomb may have been discovered as early as 1860 by the Rassul brothers. When objects from the tomb began appearing on the market an investigation was made, and after torturing the Rassul brothers one of them revealed the location of the tomb. The tomb had to be excavated in haste to prevent further plunder by the locals.     The mummies had been collected and reburied possibly in the 7th or 8th year of Psusennes I, and more reburials may date to the time of Shoshenk I.     Below is a list of mummies from DB320. The numbers refer to the catalogue numbers they received. Links are provided to the Theban Mummy Project pages which include photographs and information about the mummies.

 

 

 

 

No 61051 Sequenenre-Tao II died in battle. The king had apparently been stabbed behind one of his ears with a knife or sword. His cheek and nose had been smashed, perhaps with a mace, and the large wounds visible above the king's right eye and on his upper forehead may have been inflicted with a battle axe. All of these injuries seem consistent with the kind of battlefield death.
    Ikram and Dodson refer to a recent examination of the wound behind the king's ear which revealed that this injury had started to heal prior to the king's death, and therefore indicated that Seqnenre-Taa II had received it well in advance of the time when the other wounds to his head were inflicted. They mention the possibility that the king may have been injured in battle, and then assassinated while he was still recuperating. Seqenenre-Tao was ca 1.70 m tall(5ft 7in) and had thick curly black hair.

http://members.tripod.com/anubis4_2000/17A.htm#Seqnenre-Taa%20II

 

No 61052Unknown Woman A: Probably (Ahmose)-Meryetamen I Described as a small old woman. The mummy is badly damaged and is missing its arms. Probably a daughter of Seqenenre Tao II. Both of Ahmose-Meryetamun's ears had been pierced, and remarked on the poor state of her dentition. She was elderly at the time of her death, and may have died as the result of a fall backward which produced a head injury still visible on her mummified scalp.
    This mummy has been confused in the literature with that of Meryt-Amon II ,the daughter of Ahmose I and the wife of the 18th Dynasty king Amenhotep I. The mummy of Merytamen II was found in TT358.Her mummy indicates that she died in her thirties. To further confuse the issue, Merytamen II was mistaken for another Merytamen who was a wife of Amenhotep II.

http://members.tripod.com/anubis4_2000/mummypages1/Early18.htm#Ahmose-Meryetamen

 

No 61053 Ahmose-Inhapi daughter of Senakhtenre-Tao I and the wife of Seqenenre-Tao II. Ahmose-Inhapi was ca 1.69 m tall (5ft 6 1/3in). She is described as a stout youngish woman. The mummification techniques used on Inhapi bears some resemblance to those used for her husband Seqenenre Tao. As in the case of Seqnenre-Taa II, aromatic powdered wood had also been sprinkled over Inhapi's body.

http://members.tripod.com/anubis4_2000/17A.htm#Ahmose-Inhapi

 

No 61054 Lady Rai was supposedly a (wet-)nurse of Ahmose-Nofretari. Lady Rai was a youngish woman who stood only 1.51 m tall (4ft 11 1/2 in). Her mummy is in very good shape.

http://members.tripod.com/anubis4_2000/mummypages1/Early18.htm#Rai

 

No 61055 Ahmose-Nefertari died at ca 70 years of age. Ahmose Nefertari was the daughter of Sequenenre Tao and Queen Ahhotep. She was married to Ahmose and the mother of Amenhotep I. She was ca 1.61 tall (5ft 3 1/3 in)

http://members.tripod.com/anubis4_2000/mummypages1/Early18.htm#Ahmose-Nofretari

 

No 61056 Unknown Woman B (Tetisheri?) This lady was a white haired, partially bald petite lady. She would have stood 1.57 m tall (5 ft 1 3/4 in). Tetisheri was the daughter of the nobleman Tjenna and his wife Neferu. She was the wife of Senachtenre Tao I and the mother of Seqenenre Tao II and Queen Ahhotep.

http://members.tripod.com/anubis4_2000/17A.htm

 

No 61057 Ahmose I died age ca 35 - 40. He stood about 1.64 m tall (5ft 4 1/3 in).

http://members.tripod.com/anubis4_2000/mummypages1/Early18.htm#Amosis

 

No 61058 Amenhotep I Died in his 40s. The son of Ahmose and Queen Ahmose Nefertari was the second king of the 18th Dynasty.

http://members.tripod.com/anubis4_2000/mummypages1/Aeighteen.htm#Amenhotep%20I

 

No 61059 Siamun (2nd) son of Ahmose. Siamun died as a young child, and the mummy consists of a collection of bones.

 

No 61060 Sitamun daughter of Ahmose. This mummy consists of a bundle of reeds surmounted by a skull. She is probably a daughter of Ahmose and Ahmose-Nefertari. She held the title of GodÕs Wife.

http://members.tripod.com/anubis4_2000/mummypages1/Early18.htm#Sitamun

 

No 61061 Ahmose-Henttimehu, probably a daughter of Seqenenre-Taa II and Ahmose-Inhapi. She was an old woman at the time of her death and must have lived into the reign of Ahmose. She stood a little over 1.52 m (4ft 11 3/4 in). She was a King's Sister and King's Wife (of Ahmose).

http://members.tripod.com/anubis4_2000/17A.htm#Ahmose-Henttimehu

 

No 61062 Ahmose-Henttempet (Henutemipet?) is thought to be a daughter of Seqenenre-Taa II and Ahhotep I. She would have been a sister of King Ahmose. She reached an advanced age and must have lived into the reign of Ahmose. She stood ca 1.61m tall (5ft 3 1/2 in)

http://members.tripod.com/anubis4_2000/17A.htm#Ahmose-Hentempet

 

No 61063 Ahmose-Sitkamose, Perhaps a daughter of Kamose..She would have been ca 1.62 m tall (5 ft 7 3/4 in). Possibly received the title of God's Wife posthumously.

http://members.tripod.com/anubis4_2000/17A.htm#Ahmose-Sitkamose

 

No 61064 Ahmose Sipair. A son of Ahmose  and his sister-wife Ahmose Nefertari. This peculiar mummy looks very distorted. The skin and only some of the bones remain.

http://members.tripod.com/anubis4_2000/mummypages1/Early18.htm#Sipair

 

No 61065 Ahmose-Sipairi (or Tuthmosis I)? maybe someone else? Maspero thought he was over 50 at time of death, but recently examinations have shown he was only approximately 20 years old.. One recent theory, as noted by Ikram and Dodson,  proposes that this mummy is actually that of Ahmose-Sipairi, the alleged father of Tuthmosis I. This man stood ca 1.55 m tall (5ft 3/4in).

http://members.tripod.com/anubis4_2000/mummypages1/Aeighteen.htm#Tuthmosis%20I

 

No 61066 Tuthmosis II Son of Tuthmosis I and Queen Mutnofret. Tuthmosis II was married to Hatshepsut and was the father of her daughter Neferure. Died age 25-30? Smith noted that Tuthmosis II was practically bald and that the skin of his face was wrinkled, facts which made him conclude that the king was older than 30 when he died. No obvious cause of death was found during the examination of the mummy, but Maspero, Smith,  Ikram and Dodson all report that the ruler's skin is covered with scab-like patches that may be symptomatic of some as-yet unknown disease which may have claimed his life. Smith, however, thought that the skin eruptions could have been caused post mortem by reactions of the tissues with the embalming materials. He stood ca 1.68 m tall (5ft 6 1/3in).

http://members.tripod.com/anubis4_2000/mummypages1/Aeighteen.htm#Tuthmosis%20II

 

No 61067 Unknown Man C.  This individual was fairly tall for his time. He would have been ca 1.74 tall (5 ft 8 1/2 in). His remains were found in the coffin of a scribe named Nebseni. This man in his late middle age was most likely a high ranking official from the early 18th dynasty. Some have speculated that this could be Senenmut (there is no evidence for that identification however).

 

No 61068 Tuthmosis III died at ca 65 years of age. He was the son of Tuthmosis II and Queen Iset. He stood ca 1.68 m tall (5ft 6 1/3in).

http://members.tripod.com/anubis4_2000/mummypages1/Aeighteen.htm#Tuthmosis%20III

 

No 61076 Unknown Woman (Bakt?) These remains belong to a young woman of about 21 years. Tentatively dated to the 18th dynasty.

 

No 61077 Seti I  He was the son of Ramses I and Sitre (or Tiy).  The mummy of Seti I indicates that he was in his sixties when he died. The man may have died from complications resulting from a severe ear infection.

http://members.tripod.com/anubis4_2000/mummypages2/19A.htm#Seti%20I

 

No 61078 Ramesses II He was the son of Seti I and Queen Mut-Tuy. He died in his 80s

http://members.tripod.com/anubis4_2000/mummypages2/19A.htm#Ramesses%20II

 

No 61083 Ramesses III He was the son of Sethnakht and Tiye-Merenesse. He died at ca 65 years of age.

http://members.tripod.com/anubis4_2000/mummypages2/20A.htm#Ramesses%20III

 

No 61087 Nodjmet Wife of the High Priest Herihor and possibly also the wife of Piankh.  Likely the mother of Pinudjem I.
Her coffins, canopic chests and two books of the Dead were found with her. The age of Nodjmet at death is thought to have been between thirty and thirty-five.

http://members.tripod.com/anubis4_2000/mummypages1/21A.htm

 

No 61088 Maatkare-Mutemhet Daughter of Pinudjem I and Queen Duathathor-Henttawy. She was God's Wife of Amen and Divine Adoratrix.
Her coffins, a papyrus, and shabtis were found with her. Her body was accompanied by the mummy of her pet-baboon (which at some point was erroneously thought to be the body of an infant).

http://members.tripod.com/anubis4_2000/mummypages1/21A.htm#Maatkare-Mutemhet

 

No 61090 Duathathor -Henttawy a daughter of Ramesses XI, Queen of Pinudjem I, Mother of Psusennes I.
Embalmers had packed the skin with a mixture of sawdust and resin to give the mummy a more life-like appearance. The skin had unfortunately ruptured due to this process. Dr. Iskander restored the mummy to its original form. (See link on page below.)

http://members.tripod.com/anubis4_2000/mummypages1/21A.htm#Duathathor-Henttawy-A

 

No 61091 Tayuheret Chief of the Harim of Amen-Re. Possibly the wife of Masaharta, General and High Priest of Amun.
She had white hair, which indicates she died an elderly woman. Her canopic jars were also found in the tomb.

http://members.tripod.com/anubis4_2000/mummypages1/21A.htm#Tayuheret

 

No 61092 Masaharta (II) General and High Priest of Amen at Thebes. He was a son of King Pinudjem I.
A fragment of a letter may indicate that Masaharta fell ill and died at El-Hiba. His mummy is now in the Museum of Mummification at Luxor.

http://members.tripod.com/anubis4_2000/mummypages1/21A.htm#Masaharta

 

No 61093 Istemkheb (IV) daughter of the High Priest Menkheperre and the sister-wife of Pinudjem II,
Her coffins, canopics and other funerary equipment were buried with her. A much earlier set of her coffins were reused for the burial of Nesikhonsu (see below). DB320 may be her original place of burial.

http://members.tripod.com/anubis4_2000/mummypages1/21B.htm#Isiemkheb-D

 

No 61094 Pinudjem II Son of High Priest Menkheperre and his wife Isetemkheb. High priest of Amun at Thebes. He served until year 10 of Siamun. Pinudjem II was buried with his coffins, a shabti box, an Osiris figure, a papyrus, and canopic jars.

http://members.tripod.com/anubis4_2000/mummypages1/21A.htm#Pinudjem%20II

 

No 61095 Nesikhonsu the wife (and niece) of Pinudjem II. She was the daughter of the High Priest of Amun Nesibanebdjedet and his wife Tahentdjehuty. She held the titles: "first chief of the concubines of Amen-Re, King of the Gods, majordomo of the house of Mut the great, lady of Ashru; prophetess of Anhur-Shu the son of Re; prophetess of Min, Horus, and Isis in Ipu; prophetess of Horus, lord of Diuef; god's mother of Khons the child, first one of Amen-Re, King of Gods; and chief of the noble ladies".
    Buried in DB320 in year 5 of Siamun. Her burial included a religious decree that was to ensure her well-being in the next world, as well as prevent her from doing harm to her husband and children from there (!). Her children include Tjanefer (II), Masaharta (III), Itawy and Nesitanebtashru.

http://members.tripod.com/anubis4_2000/mummypages1/21B.htm#Neskhons

 

No 61096 Nestanebtishru A priestess of Amun - daughter of Pinudjem II and Nesikhonsu, wife of Djedptahiufankh.
Named in the religious decree of her mother. Mummy found with coffins and shabtis.
There was also a linen docket written in hieratic on her shroud, which indicated that it had been woven for her by her alleged step mother Istemkheb (IV?)

http://members.tripod.com/anubis4_2000/mummypages1/21B.htm#Nestanebtishru

 

No 61097 Djedptahiufankh "Fourth(?) Prophet of Amen-Re, King's son of Ramesses" Possibly husband of Nestanebtishru Names and titles on coffins, and texts of mummy cloths give the dates of Years 10 and 11 of Shoshenq I, and of his son Iuput A(?) (First Prophet of Amen-Re, General).

http://members.tripod.com/anubis4_2000/mummypages1/21B.htm#Djedptahiufankh

 

No 61098 Unknown man E This man was ca 1.71 m tall (5 ft 7 1/4 in). The man was not embalmed and sown into a sheepskin. He must have been a youngish man as his teeth were only slightly worn. No better date than "New Kingdom" has been given. Speculation about the identity of this individual has varied from Prince Zannanza to Prince Pentaweret.

http://www.geocities.com/royalmummies/ManE/ManE.htm

 

No Number assigned: Ramesses IX  Probably the son of Prince Mentuhirkhopshef and Takhat, and a grandson of Ramses III.
Ramesses IX was originally buried in KV6.

http://members.tripod.com/anubis4_2000/mummypages2/20A.htm#Ramesses%20IX

 

No Number assigned: Pinudjem I Vizier, High Priest of Amun, Generalissimo.
He was the son of Piankh, General and High Priest of Amen, and Nodjmet.
Took on pharaonic titles from at least yeat 16 of Nesibanebdjedet.

http://members.tripod.com/anubis4_2000/mummypages1/21A.htm#Pinudjem%20I

 

No Number assigned: Ramesses I ? The mummy is that of a man 1.60 m. tall who died between 35 and 45 years of age. The body had been very well preserved using embalming techniques typical of the late 18'th-early 19'th Dynasties. The man may have died from complications resulting from a severe ear infection.

http://members.tripod.com/anubis4_2000/mummypages2/19A.htm#Ramesses%20I

 

The coffin of Nebseny The mummy tentatively identified as Ahmose-Sipairi was found in the coffin of Nebseny. At some point the mummy was thought to be that of Nebseny.
    Nebseny was a father of a Queen Tentamen, father-in-law of a King Ramesses XI, and likely the grandfather of another Queen, named Henuttawy (wife of Pinudjem I).

 

 

Sources/Suggested reading:

1. Bolton, I. The Royal Cache of Mummies  Website:  http://members.tripod.com/~ib205/cache-1.html

2. Dodson A. and Hilton D. The Complete Royal Families of Ancient Egypt, London 2004

3. Forbes, D.C., Tombs, treasures, mummies: Seven great discoveries of Egyptian archaeology, KMT Communications, 1998

4. Miller, W. M. The Theban Royal Mummy Project. The website: http://members.tripod.com/anubis4_2000/mummypages1/introduction.htm

 

 










Comments: email barta@slu.edu