Ancient Egypt


Page by Anneke Bart

Kings and Queens

4th dynasty
Seneferu, Khufu, Khafre, Menkaure, Djedefre, etc.

11th dynasty
Kings named Mentuhotep and Intef

12th dynasty
Amenemhet I - IV,
Senusret I-III

18th dynasty
Amenhotep I-IV,
Tuthmosis I-IV, Akhenaten, Tutankhamen, Aye, Horemheb, etc.

19th dynasty
Sety I-II, Ramesses I-II, Merenptah, Amenmesses, Tawosret.

20th dynasty

Sethnakht, Ramesses III
Ramesses IV - XI

25th dynasty
Alara, Kashta, Piye,
Shabaka, Shabataka,
Taharqa, Tanutamun, etc.

Cleopatra VII Philopator

Queens (D1-6)- Old Kingdom
Queens (D11-13) Middle Kingd.
Queens (D16-20)- New Kingdom
Queens (D21-29)- Late Period

Officials, Priesthood etc.
Viziers (New Kingdom)
High Priests of Amun
God's Wives of Amun
High Priests of Ptah
Viceroys of Nubia
Who's who of New Kingdom

Amarna Period
Queen Nefertiti
inscriptions Queen Nefertiti.
Queen Kiya

Tombs at Amarna
Houses at Amarna

Valley of the Kings,
Valley of the Queens
Theban Tombs,
Tombs at Abydos
Tombs at El Kab
Tombs in Aswan
Early dynastic Saqqara
New Kingdom Saqqara
The Unis Cemetary

Mastabas at the Giza Plateau
Giza Mastabas 1000 cemetary
Giza Mastaba 2000 cemetary
Giza Mataba 2300 cemetary
Giza Mastaba 4000 cemetary
Giza Mastaba 5000 cemetary
Giza Mastaba 6000 cemetary
Giza Mastaba 7000 cemetary

Mummy Caches
Tomb DB320
Tomb KV35

Amenhotep III

Ca 1388 - 1348 BC



Amenhotep III from a statue at Luxor


Horus name: Kanakht Khaemmaat
Nebty name: Semenhepusegerehtawy
Golden Falcon name: Aakhepesh-husetiu
Prenomen: Nebmaatre
Nomen: Amenhotep

Family Background:

Amenhotep was the son of Thutmosis IV (Menkheperure) and Queen Mutemwia. Amenhotep grew up at court with several brothers and sisters. We know that he had at least two brothers. Prince Amenemhat died young and was buried with his father in KV43.Prince Siatum was depicted with his tutor Meryre. Siatum is known to have had a daughter named Nebetia. Amenhotep also had at least four sisters: Amenemopet, Pyihia, Tiaa, and Tintamen.


Great Royal Wife Tiye 

Image of Queen Tiye (from the Louvre)

Amenhotep is known to have had many wives. The most important of them all is undoubtedly Queen Tiye. Amenhotep and Tiye married when he just got to the throne and she is depicted on may monuments, and even had a temple in Sedeinga devoted to her.

Amenhotep and Tiye had seven children. They had two sons: Tuthmosis and Amenhotep. They also had five daughters: Sitamen, Iset, Henuttaneb, Nebetiah and Beketaten.

Tuthmosis was the eldest son and crown prince. He became a priest of Ptah in Memphis, but seems to have died somewhere around the 30th year of the reign of his father. Prince Amenhotep then became the heir to the throne. Amenhotep eventually took the throne as Amenhotep IV. He married Nefertiti, and after a couple of years on the throne he changed his name to Akhenaten.


Yuya and Tuya were the non royal parents of Queen Tiye. Yuya was commander of the Chariotry, God's Father and High Priest of Min. Tuya was Chief of the Harem of Amun and Min. They are known to have been the parents of the Second Priest of Amun, named Anen, as well.

Great Royal Wife Sitamen
Amenhotep III elevated his daughter Sitamen to the position of Great Royal Wife during his first Sed festival in his 30th year of reign. Sitamen had her own quarters at the new palace at Malqata. There are actually more jar labels from this palace that attest Sitamen, than jar-labels mentioning her mother Queen Tiye. The so-called North Palace may be the place where Sitamen lived. Two chairs belonging to Sitamen were found in the tomb of Yuya and Tuya - her grand-parents. The great Amenhotep, son of Hapu, was the Steward for the estates of Queen Sitamen. He served in this capacity as early as year 30 and was still in office in year 34.

Great Royal Wife Isis (- Iset) 
Iset - another daughter of Amenhotep III and Tiye -  was elevated to the position of Great Royal Wife during the second
Sed festival in year 34. Iset - or Isis - is also known from some carnelian plaques.

  King's Daughter, King's Wife Isis

aughter of Amenhotep III and Tiye. She may have married Amenhotep III as well. Her name was written in a cartouche, but she never used the title King's Wife. Henuttaneb appears in scenes  of the Sed festival in Soleb as well as on some carnelian plaques.

Royal Wife Gilukhepa 
Daughter of Shutturna II, King of Mitanni. She married Amenhotep in the tenth year of his reign. A series of commemorative scarabs were made to announce the marriage. Gilukhepa (sometimes written as Kilukhepa) arrived in Egypt with a retinue of 317 servants.

Royal Wife Tadukhepa.
Daughter of Tushratta, King of Mitanni. Tadukhepa came to Egypt in the later years of Amenhotep's reign. Her dowry was said to include a chariot and four horses. She is mentioned in some of the Amarna letters. She may have married Amenhotep, but it seems that Tadukhepa later married Amenhotep IV (Akhenaten). Some scholars believe that Tadukhepa may be identical to Kiya.

Great Royal Wife Nebetnehat
Known from a canopic jar fragment found in the Valley of the Queens. According to B. Bryan, this queen should be dated to the time of Amenhotep III based on inscriptions mentioning
the of Itn-thn, "Aten Tjehen", the palace of Malkata. A picture of the canopic jar fragment can be found at the digitalegypt site:
Great King’s Wife, his beloved (hmt-niswt-wrt meryt.f), Hereditary Princess (iryt-p`t), Great of Praises (wrt-hzwt)

The Royal Wife Henut
Known from a canopic jar fragment. According to B. Bryan, this queen should be dated to the time of Amenhotep III based on inscriptions mentioning the of Itn-thn, "Aten Tjehen", the palace of Malkata.


Princess Sitamen, Eldest daughter of Amenhotep and Tiye. Became Great Royal Wife in year 30, apparently during her father's first Sed Festival. There is quite a bit of speculation about this lady. Some authors have proposed that Sitamen was not a daughter of Amenhotep, but a much younger sister. According to this theory she would have been a daughter of Tuthmosis IV and Queen Iaret. There doesn't seem much corroborating evidence for this theory though. It has also been proposed that this lady was the mother of the princes Smenkhare and Tutankhaten. There is no real evidence to support this theory either.
Sitamen's estates were managed by the great Amenhotep, son of Hapu, and finds from the Malqata Palace in Thebes show that she likely had apartments there.

Princess Isis, daughter of Amenhotep III and Tiye. She was elevated to the position of Great Royal Wife during the second Sed festival in year 34. Iset - or Isis - is also known from some carnelian plaques.

Princess Henutaneb
aughter of Amenhotep III and Tiye. She may have married Amenhotep III as well. (See above)

King's Daughters Isis and Henutaneb at Soleb.
Note the transcription error made by Lepsius.

Princess Nebetah, daughter of Amenhotep III and Tiye. This daughter appears on a statue with Amenhotep and Tiye which is now in the museum in Cairo. Princess Nebetah appears on the right side of the statue, next to her father's knee. The statue of the Princess is damaged and only the part from the knees to the shouldres remains. The upper part of a head - shown in an exhibit in Amsterdam's Allard Pierson collection - has been matched with the remainder of the princess' image. Nebetah was depicted with a short Nubian wig with a braided long braid on the right side of the wig.

?Princess Baketaten. Seen by some as a daughter of Amenhotep III and Tiye. There are also some who think she may be the daughter of Amenhotep III and Tadukhepa (who may or may not be identical to Kiya).


Prince Tuthmosis. Crown Prince of Egypt. He was sem-priest of Ptah and High Priest of Ptah in Memphis. He likely dies shortly before the Sed Festival in year 30 as his place seems to have been taken by Amenhotep, son of Hapu, in some of the ceremonies.

Prince Amenhotep, later Pharaoh Amenhotep IV who renamed himself Akhenaten. As a prince we only know him from one wine docket.

?Prince Smenkhare? Some believe that Smenkhare was a son of Amenhotep III (possibly by Sitamen). There is no evidence to support this theory however.

?Prince Tutankh(u)aten? Some think Tutankhaten was the jonger brother of Smenkhare and by this theory a son of Amenhotep III and Sitamen (or even Queen Tiye). Many however believe Tutankhaten was the son of Akhenaten and Kiya.

The early reign of Amenhotep III

Tuthmosis IV came to the throne young and died after only 10 years. Amenhotep was the young son of Tuthmosis IV and Queen Mutemwia.

On the walls of the Amen temple in Luxor we find the story of Amenhotep's supernatural conception, his birth and his coronation. The treatment is almost identical to the story told by Hatshepsut about her conception, birth and coronation. We see Queen Mutemwia visited by the god Amen, and conceiving a child. She is later assisted by the goddesses at the birth. These inscriptions are meant to show that Amenhotep was the divine son of the god Amen.

Amenhotep was probably still young when he came to the throne. His age is often estimated to be ca 12 years old when he ascended to the throne.

It is interesting that by year 2 Amenhotep was married to Tiye, who was to remain his most influential Queen. She was the daughter of the Master of the Horse and God's Father Yuya and his wife Tuya, the Superior of the Entertainers in the Harems of Amen and Min. Yuya and Tuya came from Akhmin, and some scholars have speculated that Yuya was a brother of Queen Mutemwia, although there is no evidence for this.

Early in his reign, in year 5, Amenhotep goes on a military campaign against Nubia. There was a revolt that needed to be put down. Amenhotep did not go on many military expeditions. Many foreign relations were maintained through diplomacy. One of these diplomatic endeavors lead to his marriage to Ghilukhepa (sometimes called Khirghipa), daughter of Shuttarna, King of Mitanni in year 10. Ghiluphepa comes to Egypt with a retinue of 317 people.

Soon after this marriage Amenhotep turns his attention back to Tiye, and builds her a pleasure lake in a city called Djaruka. There are at least four scarabs commemorating this event. The text mentions that after the completion of the lake his majesty sailed on the lake in the royal barge 'Aten gleams'.


Middle years

Amenhotep III was a prolific builder. He built a mortuary temple dedicated to Amen. The only part that remains today of this building are the colossal statues of Amenhotep that stood before the temple. These statues are now known as the colossi of Memnon. Excavations in 2002/2003 have revealed colossal statues of Queen Tiye. One of her figures stood alongside the right leg of the King. Amenhotep had it recorded that the temple floors were treated with silver, and the walls were decorated with gold and electrum. Amenhotep also added on to the temples at Luxor and Karnak. The southern portion of the temple at Luxor is due to Amenhotep III, and in Karnak he added the third pylon.

The Colossi of Memnon. All that remains of Amenhotep's great mortuary temple.

In Soleb, Nubia, Amenhotep built a temple dedicated to 'Amen-Re, residing in the Fortress of Khaemmaat'. Some fifty kilometers from Soleb is the temple of Sedeinga. This temple shows Queen Tiye as the Eye of Re. In ancient times Sedeinga was known as the 'Fortress of Tiye'. There are several divine females present at Sedeinga: Hathor, Tefnut, and Werethekau ('great of magic'). The temple of Sedeinga appears to be a female counterpoint to the male temple at Soleb.

At some point Amenhotep III had many statues of Sakhmet erected in the temple of Mut precinct in Karnak. Many hundreds of these statues have been found over the years. Some have speculated that the protective nature of the goddess may point to an attempt to have the gods protect Egypt agains disease. It would be hard to prove such a theory, but the sheer number of these statues has made many wonder about their purpose.

Text on one of the statues (State Hermitage Museum):

 Son of Re beloved by him (Amenhotep, Ruler of Thebes)|, beloved by Sakhmet, Lady of the limits of places, given life.
Young god, Lord of the Two lands, (Nebmaatre)|, beloved by Sakhmet, Lady of the limits of places, given life.

Late years

In year 29 Amenhotep moves the court to the palace at Malkata inThebes. This magnificent palace complex was erected by Amenhotep III on the westbank of Thebes for the celebrations of his sed-festivals. The site was first discovered by George Daressy in 1888. It is known for its brightly colored decorations. Malkata Palace was further excavated by a team from Waseda University, Tokyo.

The palace included a temple of Amen, an audience pavilion, servants' and officials' quarters, more living quarters, and 4 palace areas:  The North palace which were Queen/Princess Sitamen's quarters; A Middle palace; The palace of the King with adjacent audience chambers, and rooms identified as part of the harem; The south palace which were Queen Tiy's apartments. Half a kilometer to the south of the main palace complex they have found a stadium for chariot racing or exercise. It had a straight course of over 400 meters long. It is also believed that there was a Maru (sunshade) on the northern side of the Malqata palace. It was built on an east-west axis and it would have included pools, tanks, kiosks and flower-beds in which Amen as the sun-god could be seen from rising to setting every day.

Princess / Queen Sitamen. Usually thought to be a daughter of Amenhotep III and Tiye. Her father elevated her to Great Royal Wife during the heb-sed festival in year 30. The famous Amenhotep son of Hapu became the Steward of her Estates.


Sed Festivals

Amenhotep III celebrated three Sed-festivals : in years 30, 34 and 37.

" The more solemn rituals of the heb-sed included a reenactment of the dual coronation, where the monarch was reanointed first with the white crown of the King of the South and then with the red crown of the King of the North, and a ceremonial run where the king, carrying traditional emblems, was required to race four times around a specially prepared arena or pavilion in order to prove his (or in Hatshepsut's case her) physical fitness to rule." [Tyldesley]

Scene from the Sed festival in year 30 as depicted in the tomb of Kheruef. Amenhotep III is shown raising the Djed Pillar.
He is followed by Queen Tiye, who in turn is followed by 16 princesses all shaking a sistrum and holding a menat.
At the top we see the High Priest of Ptah and a sem priest, while before the offering table a "God's Father" is depicted.

Some of the celebrations took place at the royal palace at Malkata. During the festival in year 30 Amenhotep makes his daughter Sitamen a great royal wife in year 30, and he makes Iset great royal wife in year 34.

Amenhotep III likely died after 40 years of rule. His wife Tiye survived him and lived for some years after that.

Amenhotep III (Berlin) and Tiye (Brussels) from the Tomb of Kheruef. (Photos by Yuti and Philip)



Amenhotep III had scarabs made to commemorate events during his reign such as his marriage to Queen Tiye and his lion hunts.
Below is an example of a lion hunt scarab text (Museo Archeologico Nazionale/Museo Egizio)

Long live Horus, the mighty bull who rises in truth.
The Two Ladies, who establish the law and pacify
the two countries, the Golden Horus who is great of strength, the vanquisher of the Asiatics, the king of Upper and Lower Egypt
(Neb-maat-ra)| , Son of Ra, (Amenhotep, prince of Thebes)|, given life.
The royal wife Tiye, that she may live. One hundred lions
killed by His Majesty in his hunts
from the year 1 to the year 10; fearsome lions: 102
For photograph, see:

A slightly different version:


Important Officials:

Some individuals fit under more than one category, and hence there may be a minor amount of duplication.


Court Officials

Stewards and royal butlers:

Amenemhet called Surero (TT48) High Steward of the king and fan-bearer (advisor). Chief in the House of the morning, Overseer of the Cattle of Amun.
Son of Ith-taui (Overseer of the cattle of Amun) and Mut-Tuy (Royal Ornament). Surer had a brother named Setau who became second prophet in the cult of Neith. Surer served until after the sed festival in year 30. His tomb was vandalized before the agents of Akhenaten removed references to the old gods. It is not clear if Surer had somehow fallen into disgrace. (O’Conner, Cline, pg 212-213)
Named as Surero on a statue where he has the
title Overseer of the horn, hoof, feather and scale, etc. in Messina, Museo Nazionale, A.226. Another statue (Louvre A50 gives his full name Amenemhat named Surero and gives his title as  Fan-bearer on the right of the king, etc. (
Several statues of Amenemhet called Surero are mentioned on  (Northampton, Central Museum and Art Gallery, X.737, Paris, Musée Jacquemart-André, 617, Louvre, A 51,  Louvre, A 52)

Amenhotep, Son of Hapu was appointed Steward to Princess-Queen Sitamen later in life. He was the son son of Hapu and the Lady Itu and was born a commoner. He was highly regarded by the King, and he was ultimately deified in Ptolemaic times.
Amenhotep, son of Yuty. Chamberlain. Amenhotep was
imy-khnt, and so was his father Yuty.

Huya (Tomb 1 in Amarna) Steward for Queen Tiye.
Huya is only attested in Amarna. He is appointed Steward to Queen Tiye in Amarna according to the inscriptions in his tomb in Amarna.

Kheruef called Sen'aa  (TT192) Steward for Queen Tiye, Royal Scribe, First Herald to the King
Kheruef was the son of Siked - scribe of the army of the Lord of the Two Lands, and Ruiu - Royal worshipper, Chantress of Isis, Mother of the God. In Kheruef’s tomb there are depictions of the first and third heb sed festival from year 30 and 37. Kheruef had started out as first king’s herald, and later was appointed steward to Queen Tiye. During the 30 year festival Kheruef received a gold collar as an award.
(O’Conner, Cline, pg 86-87, 217-218, 300-304)

Merymery (Mrjj-mrjj), Scribe of the army of the Lord of the Two Lands, Steward of the King’s daughter Sitamun (S3t-jmn)
, etc., Mention of son Huy, Scribe of the army.
Another stela shows Merymery, Scribe of the army (dedicator of the stela) libating before Pa-en-djerty and wife seated at table. Merymery before a man and wife Ipu at a table, with the names of Pa-en-djerty and Wedj, Elder of the jury, on jambs.

Neferronpet , Steward and Royal butler. Son of Amenemhat (Hat) and Nefertari (Ry). Neferronpet was the brother of Tjawy, another royal butler,  and is shown on several reliefs from Boston Museum of Fine Arts. Two maternal aunts by the names of Merytptah and Taweret are known. Neferronpet was married to a lady whose name ends in [..]ia and had a son named Userhat. See also under Tjawy.
Known from a statue (

Nefersekheru (TT107) was Steward of the estate of Amenhotep III 'Ra glistens'
Nefersekheru was the son of Neby  - a judge -  and the lady Hepu.

Userhat (TT47) was overseer of private rooms of the king.
Userhat was the son of Neh (Judge) and Senenu. His wife was named Maiay.

Sennefer  was chief steward of the King. He also was overseer of prophets of Min lord of Ipu and of Ptah foremost of ( Tje)nent, and  First prophet of Amen in Khentnufer. In Berlin, Ägyptisches Museum, 21595. (Probably from Tell Basa.)

Tjawy, Royal butler clean of hands, Great wab priest of Wert-hekau.
Known from a tomb relief (probably from Dra abu el-Naga). Tjawy (T3wjj), Royal butler clean of hands, Great wab priest of Wert-hekau An aunt named aunt Merytptah (Mrjjt-pth) is shown before seated Tjauy and his parents Hat (H.3t) and Nefertari (Nfrt-jrjj)
Also depicted is Tjauy’s nephew Userhet (Wsr-h.3t), a scribe, before Neferronpet (Nfr-rnpt), Royal butler, etc.

Jars from the Sed festival mention the palace chamberlains (imy-khnt) Amenmose, Pay, Penamun, Meryamun, Hatiay, Kenamun and Thutmose.

Seated statue of Amenhotep Son of Hapu.

Another individuals who had daily dealings with the members of the court:
Amenemonet  The King's Herald

Heqareshu (TT226) and his son Heqarneheh Heqareshu was overseer of nurses of the king. In his tomb he is shown offering gifts to Amenhotep III and the Queen-Mother Mutemwia. Heqareshu is shown with four children on his knees. But these may actually be children of a previous king. Heqareshu had been the tutor of  Tuthmosis IV. Heqareshu's son Heqarneheh was tutor to the royal prince Amenhotep, who would later become Amenhotep III. ( Amenhotep III: Perspectives on His Reign; By David B. O'Connor, Eric H. Cline)

Meryre, Overseer of nurses of the good god [Pharaoh](Known from inscriptions in Saqqara). Further titles: Nomarch and Count, the royal scribe, the Overseer of Royal Estates of his Majesty. Tutor to the royal son Si-Atum.
Meryre and his wife Baket(-Amun) are depicted in reliefs with a daughter named Tay. Copies of the texts can be found here

Minemheb, Chief of Works for the Jubilee Temple, Army scribe of the Lord of the Two Lands. He was one of the many court officials whose duty it was to prepare for Amenhotep III's jubilee. (known from a statue)

Nebmerutef chancellor, royal scribe and high priest (of Thoth?). He was among those appearing with the king at the rituals relating to the first jubulee . He appears before Amenhotep III, who wears jubilee garb and the red crown, and Tiy as they approach the palace after the celebration. (known from temple inscriptions at Soleb and Thebes) Also known from a statue in the Louvre (

Ra, TT201, First herald of the king, Served Tuthmosis IV and Amenhotep III

Seth, also called Setesh, Royal cupbearer. Buried in tomb I.13 in the cliffs of the Bubasteion. Discovered by The French Archaeological Mission of the Bubasteion, lead by A. Zivie. Inscriptions in the tomb also point to a career in the military.

Tiay , Charioteer of the good god, son of Tety, Scribe, and Menuna  seated with sistrum of Teye, King's great wife (of Amenophis III), Cairo Mus. CG 1286. (Probably from Kôm el-in.)

Tjaia'n  Overseer of the Audience Chamber.

Yuya and Tuya. Yuya was High Priest of Min, Overseer of the Cattle of Min, Master of the Horse, Royal commander of the chariotry. Tuya was Superior of the Harem of Amen and Min (this title meant that she was chief of the entertainers). Yuya and Tuya were the parents of Queen Tiye. They lived until the latter years of Amenhotep's reign. They were granted a tomb in the Valley of the Kings (KV46). Their tomb was found intact in 1905.


Government Officials


Amenhotep called Huy: Southern Vizier, Overseer of all the works of the King. Attested in year 30 when he donated jars at the Sed festival.

Aperel / Aperia: , Vizier, God's Father, Child of the Kap. His tomb was found in the 1980's by Alain Zivie in Saqqara. Aperel was buried with his wife Taweret, and their son the General Huy. (O’Conner, Cline, pg 120, 202)

Ptahmose was  Vizier of the South, Mayor of Thebes, Overseer of all the works, High Priest of Amen, Overseer of all the Priests of Upper and Lower Egypt, Fan-bearer on the right side of the king. Served during the early part of the reign.(O’Conner, Cline, pg 202-203)

Ramose, Governor of the Town, Vizier (of the North?). Son of the Memphis mayor named Heby (called Neby in Porter and Moss) and his wife Ipuia. Ramose was the (half-) brother of the Steward Amenhotep called Huy. Ramose’s tomb in Thebes shows his many family connections. His nephew Ipy (son of the steward Amenhotep) is depicted at a banquet. Ramose was married to a lady named Merytptah. Ramose’s father in law May was a commander of chariotry, while his brother in law Keshy was a tracker of Amun (possibly attached to the Theban police force). Ramose’s tomb is famous for showing both Amenhotep III and his son Amenhotep IV, who would later rename himself Akhenaten. Attested in year 30 when he donated jars at the Sed festival.
(O’Conner, Cline, pg 203-205, 303-305, Porter and Moss pg 105-111)

High ranking dignitaries

Amenemhet Surere King's Scribe and the Chief Steward of Thebes.

Amenhotep Huy  Chief Steward of Memphis. Donated 10 jars to sed festival in years 30 and 31.
A statue of a chief Steward of Memphis named Amenh
otep in Bologna, Museo Civico Archeologico, 1825, mentions the parents of Amenhotep Neferhabef and [Tu]T(u)ia (

Amenmose, TT89, steward in the Southern City, King's Steward in Thebes.
See also

Heby, Mayor of Memphis, Overseer of the cattle of Amun, General of the Lord of the Two Lands
Heby was already overseer of the cattle of Amun in year 5 of Amenhotep III. Heby left an inscription at Aswan to commemorate his presence during a campaign to Kush in that year.
 One of his sons later refers to Heby as a general of the Lord of the Two Lands, indicating that Heby must have served in the army. Heby was the father of the steward Amenhotep called Huy and the vizier Ramose. His second wife (mother of Ramose) was called Ipuia. (O’Conner, Cline, pg 194-195)

Merymose, (TT383). Viceroy of Nubia, also referred to as King's Son of Kush. His sarcophagus is in the British museum.
Shown i
n a statue in Vienna, Kunsthistorisches Museum, Ägyptisch-Orientalische Sammlung, ÄS 36. (Probably from Asyû or Manqabâd.)

Mery-Ra, Chancellor.  But also mentioned in the tomb is the chancellor Sennefer. Possibly the same individual?
The tomb is  designated at II.4 and is located  in the cliffs of the Bubasteion  (a sanctuary dedicated to Bastet).

Tjenuro (or Tjel),  Mayor of Memphis and his wife Ipay, the chantress of Amun, the Royal Nurse.  Two mummiform statues were found of the couple. Lady Ipay is represented as the god Osiris (complete with beard).

Treasury Officials

Harmose, Custodian of the treasury, followed by his son Sipair, Servant of the treasury, and his (Sipair’s) mother (Harmosi’s wife) Sat-ty and his (Sipair’s) wife Wadjetronpet. Sipair libating offerings, followed by his small son Khaemweset, before seated Harmose and Sat-ty in Budapest,Szépmu vészeti Múzeum

Merymery, guardian of the treasury. Known from inscriptions from Saqqara.

Mermose. Overseer of the treasury.
Mermose likely served as treasurer during (the end of?) the third decade of Amenhotep’s reign. Mermose left graffiti in Aswan where he is associated with Kheruef and Mermose, the Viceroy of Kush. Mermose would be succeeded by Sobekmose. (O’Conner, Cline, pg 189)

Meriptah, Overseer of the Treasury. Mentioned by Amenhotep son of Hapu in his mortuary temple. [Breasted]

Ptahmose, high treasurer. Attested in year 30 when he donated jars at the Sed festival.

Samut (tomb A24 in Thebes), Overseer of the treasury of gold and silver, Sealer of every contract in Karnak also served as second prophet of Amun.

Sobekmose, Likely held the position of treasurer by year 30. Sobekmose was the son of Sobeknakht who was an army scribe from the town of Rizeiqat, southwest of Thebes. Sobekmose started as a treasury scribe like his brother Iuny. Sobekmose contributed wine in year 30 to the first Sed Festival. By year 36 Sobekmose must have died and he was succeeded by his son Sobekhotep. (O’Conner, Cline, pg 190-192) See also:

Sobekhotep, called Panehesy Overseer of the treasury
Son of Sobekmose and Overseer of the treasury after year 36. Involved in the preparations for the third Sed Festival in year 37. (O’Conner, Cline, pg 190-192)

Yuyu and Tiy: Yuyu was guardian of the treasury. (Statue in the Louvre)

Yuyu and Tiy


Granary officials

Khaemhat called Mahu: Overseer of the granaries of Upper and Lower Egypt. (TT57)
Married to the lady Tiyi. Khaemhat was the son of the treasurer Imhotep.
Khaemhat was likely present during the first Sed festival in year 30. He may have participated as “priest of Anubis on the jubilee day of the first Sed Festival of His Majesty”. (O’Conner, Cline, pg 183-184, 218)

Ramose, Overseer of the granaries of Upper and Lower Egypt and Steward (TT46)



High Priests of Amen:

Mery , First prophet of Amen (TT95),

Meryptah  , First prophet of Amen, etc., same as above? Served as High Priest of Amun since year 20.

Ptahmose High Priest of Amen, Vizier of the South, Mayor of Thebes, Overseer of all the works, Overseer of all the Priests of Upper and Lower Egypt, Fan-bearer on the right side of the king. Served during the early part of the reign. (O’Conner, Cline, pg 202-203)

Sennefer , First prophet of Amen in Khentnufer, etc.Chief steward of the King, Overseer of prophets of Min lord of Ipu and of Ptah foremost of ( Tje)nent, (from Statue)


Some Second and Third Prophets:

Anen, Second Prophet of Amen, Seal-bearer of the King. Left office in the fourth decade of Amenhotep's reign. Son of Yuya and Tuya. Mentioned on his mother's sarcophagus. Buried in TT120 in Thebes.

Second Priest of Amun, Greatest of Seers, Anen.
Son of Yuya and Tuya, and bother of Queen Tiye.

(tomb A12 in Thebes) Second prophet of Amun, Overseer of the treasury of gold and silver, Sealer of every contract in Karnak

Amenemhet  Third prophet of Amen. A statue depicts this priest and mentions his family: his wife Amenotep  and daughter Meryt , Songstress of Amun.


MaetkaDivine Adoratrix of Amun, wife of Senena, Head goldsmith of Amun
Daughter: Maetka.

Sobeknakht  Army scribe and later Steward of Amun
Sobeknakht came from a family of army scribes. By year 20 Sobeknakht was appointed Steward of Amun. His son Sobekmose and his grandson Sobekhotep would rose to become overseers of the treasury. (O’Conner, Cline, pg 190-192)
Sobeknakht was married to Hatshepsut. They had four sons (Sobekhotep,Iuny, Huy and Nebseny)  and three daughters (Mutensut, Nefertari  and Takhat)

Suti, Overseer of works of Amun at Karnak, and Hor Overseer of works of Amun [at Karnak]. Mention of the God’s Wife Ahmose Nefertari. Suti and Hor are shown seated at bottom.
Suti is also mentioned on a separate stat
ue: Suti, Overseer of works of Amun at Karnak, etc., son of [Te]timosi , [...] of Ptah, and Hat[...]

Temple of Ptah in Memphis

Meryuptah, Priest and Steward of the mansion of Pharaoh. Known from a statue in Leiden and from jars donated in Malqata.

Nakhtmin. Steward of the Mansion of the Pharaoh. His title is the same as that of Meryuptah mentioned above.
Ptahmose (I):
High Priest of Ptah at Memphis. Chancellor,  Also written as Ptahmes. He was a brother of Meryuptah, the prophet and treasurer of the temple of Nebmaatre. They were the sons of the Mayor and Vizier Djehutymes (Tuthmosis) and his wife Tawy.
Ptahmose (II)
This high priest was the son of Menkheper.

Crown Prince Thutmosis. Eldest King's Son, High Priest of Ptah at Memphis, Sem-Priest of Ptah at Memphis, Overseer of the Prophets of Upper and Lower Egypt.

Prince Tuthmosis depicted on a bier with a ba bird on his chest.
The inscription mentions "the King's Son, Sem Priest, Tuthmose".

The prince seems to have died during the third decade of the reign of Amenhotep III.



Amenemhet,  The Greatest of Seers (High Priest of Re in Heliopolis).  Was present during at least one of the Sed Festivals.

Djehutymose (Tuthmose), Great one of the council of Thoth lord of Hermopolis Magna, etc. and wife(?) Ia ,  ime of Tuthmosis IV to Amenophis III, in Hildesheim, Roemer- und Pelizaeus-Museum, Pelizaeus-Museum 4719.

Tjaytjay, Greatest of the five in the temple of Thoth, First prophet of Horus lord of Hebnu, etc., son of Paka, Head of the Medjay. [Griffith Inst.]
Statue i
n Berlin, Ägyptisches Museum, 17021. Tjaytjay's father is mentioned on a statue  now in Turin, Museo Egizio, Cat. 3069.

Yuya and Tuya. Yuya was High Priest of Min, Overseer of the Cattle of Min, Master of the Horse, Royal commander of the chariotry. Tuya was Superior of the Harem of Amen and Min (this title meant tthat she was chief of the entertainers). Yuya and Tuya were the parents of Queen Tiye. They lived until the latter years of Amenhotep's reign. They were granted a tomb in the Valley of the Kings (KV46). Their tomb was found intact in 1905.



Aperel, Master of the Horse.

Horemheb, (TT78) Scribe of recruits, Tutor of Princess Amenmipet. Master of the Horse. Served Tuthmosis III, Amenhotep II, Tuthmosis IV and Amenhotep III (long service!) Mother: Isis;  Wife: Atuia;  Son: Pewah.

Huy, was  a general. He was a son of the Vizier Aperel. It's possible that Huy dates to the time of Akhenaten instead of Amenhotep.

Ineny, Commander of the Garrison Troops.

Iunna , Standard-bearer of the company Jmn-tp 3 w3st spr nfrw, Munich, Staatliche Sammlung Ägyptischer Kunst, ÄS 6761. (Probably from the Memphite area.) (

Kamose, Standard-bearer of the company 'Nebmaetre (Amenophis III) is the Shining Sun-disc', etc., son of May, King's messenger to abroad, and Takhat.

Nebamun, TT90 captain of troops of police on the west of Thebes, Standardbearer of the Royal Barque. Temp. Tuthmosis IV - Amenhotep III; Wives: Sensenbut and Tiy;  Son: Khaemwaset;  Daughters: Segerttaui (Royal concubine), Weret and Iuy

[Neb]kedet(?) , Standard-bearer of the companies 'Star of the Two Lands in Memphis', 'One Who has Appeared as Truth', etc.,

Resh, Officer from time of Time of Tuthmosis IV and Amenhotep III. Buried in tomb I.3 in the cliffs of the Bubasteion. Discovered by The French Archaeological Mission of the Bubasteion, lead by A. Zivie.

Thutmose. Commander of the Fortress of Tjel.

Wesy, was chief of bowmen (Archers) of the Lord of the Two Lands and  Standard-bearer of the ship, 'Front-of-the-beauty-of-Amun'. (Known from Saqqara)

Yuya the father in law of Amenhotep was Master of the Horse. This implies he was involved with the cavalry in the army.



Bibliography / Suggested Reading

1. Breasted, J.H. Ancient Records of Egypt, Vol2, The eighteenth dynasty. Chicago 1906 (reprinted in 2001)

2. Dodson A. Divine Queens of Nubia: Tiye at Sedeinga & Nefertari at Abu Simbel, KMT, A Modern Journal of Ancient Egypt (Vol 13 #2 Summer 2002)

3. Dodson A. and Hilton D. The Complete Royal Families of Ancient Egypt, London 2004

4. Hayes, William C. Inscriptions from the Palace of Amenhotep III

5. Martin, G.T.  The Hidden Tombs of Memphis, London 1991

6. Malek J., Magee D., Miles E., Topographical Bibliography of Ancient Egyptian Hieroglyphic Texts, Statues, Reliefs and PaintingsVolume VIII: Objects of Provenance Not Known: Statues  (Published online by the Griffith Institute)

7. Murnane, W.J. , Texts from the Amarna Period in Egypt, Atlanta 1995

8. Reeves, N., Ancient Egypt, The Great Discoveries, London 2000

9. Sourouzian, H. Queen Tiye identified during a Fifth Season of excavations at Kom el Hettan, KMT, A Modern Journal of Ancient Egypt (Vol 14 #3 Fall 2003)

10. Tyldesley, J., Hatchepsut, the Female Pharaoh. 1996 (reprinted London 1998)

11. Tyldesley, J., Chronicle of the Queens of Egypt. 2006, Thames and Hudson.

12. The Saqqara Online website maintained by Leiden University (the Netherlands)

13. The Waseda University (Japan) Website.

Egypt's Dazzling sun: Amenhotep III And His World  by Arielle P. Kozloff and Betsy Bryan (The Cleveland Museum of Art )


Last edited: February 2007

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