Ancient Egypt



Page by Anneke Bart





Kings and Queens

4th dynasty
Seneferu, Khufu, Khafre, Menkaure, Djedefre, etc.

11th dynasty
Kings named Mentuhotep and Intef

12th dynasty
Amenemhet I - IV,
Senusret I-III


18th dynasty
Amenhotep I-IV,
Tuthmosis I-IV, Akhenaten, Tutankhamen, Aye, Horemheb, etc.


19th dynasty
Sety I-II, Ramesses I-II, Merenptah, Amenmesses, Tawosret.

20th dynasty

Sethnakht, Ramesses III
Ramesses IV - XI




Cleopatra VII Philopator

Queens (D1-6)- Old Kingdom
Queens (D11-13) Middle Kingd.
Queens (D16-20)- New Kingdom
Queens (D21-29)- Late Period




Officials, Priesthood etc.
Viziers (New Kingdom)
High Priests of Amun
God's Wives of Amun
High Priests of Ptah
Viceroys of Nubia
Who's who of New Kingdom


Amarna Period
Akhenaten
Queen Nefertiti
inscriptions Queen Nefertiti.
Queen Kiya

Smenkhare
Tutankhamen
Tombs at Amarna
Houses at Amarna

Tombs:
Valley of the Kings,
Valley of the Queens
Theban Tombs,
Tombs at Abydos
Tombs at El Kab
Tombs in Aswan
Early dynastic Saqqara
New Kingdom Saqqara
The Unis Cemetary

Mastabas at the Giza Plateau
Giza Mastabas 1000 cemetary
Giza Mastaba 2000 cemetary
Giza Mataba 2300 cemetary
Giza Mastaba 4000 cemetary
Giza Mastaba 5000 cemetary
Giza Mastaba 6000 cemetary
Giza Mastaba 7000 cemetary

Mummy Caches
Tomb DB320
Tomb KV35

Ramesses II and his temples

The descriptions are based on Wilkinson's book about the temples of Ancient Egyt.

Egypt

Nubia

Abydos
Abu Simbel - Great Temple
Akhmim
Abu Simbel - Hathor Temple
Bubastis
Aksha
Deir el Medina
Amara
Elephantine
Beit el Wali
El Kab
Derr
Gebel el-Silsila
Faras
Heliopolis
Gerf Hussein
Herakleopolis Magna
Wadi-es-Sebua
Hermopolis
Karnak
Luxor
Medinet el-Fayum
Memphis

Per-Ramesses
Ramesseum

 



Abu Simbel - Great Temple

This Nubian temple was constructed during the years 5-35 of Ramesses II's reign. It is the greatest of the seven rock-cut temples constructed by Ramesses II. The temple is dedicated to the deified Ramesses himself, along with the three state gods: Re-Horakhty of Heliopolis, Ptah of Memphis and Amun of Thebes. The four colossal seated statues of Ramesses were carved showing the double crown as well as the nemes headdress. The King is flanked by small statues of his mother Queen Tuya, his wife Queen Nefertari and several of his sons and daughters. On the south side of the terrace is a chapel dedicated to Thoth, as well as a stela commemorating the marriage of Ramesses to Maat-Hor-Neferure, the daughter of the Hittite King Hattusilis. On the north side of the terrace is a sun-chapel.
This magnificent temple was moved to higher ground in the 1960s.


For a more detailed pictorial overview please visit Alain Guilleux's page:
http://alain.guilleux.free.fr/abou_simbel/temples_abou_simbel.html

       

    


    


   





The plan of the temple by Lepsius comes from a page including a drawing of the facade and some inscriptions: Abt III, Band 7, Bl. 185
Smiting scene with row of daughters at the bottom: Abt III, Band 7, Bl. 186
Inscriptions from Room F (Battle of Kadesh?) Abt III, Band 7, Bl. 187
More scenes from Room F Abt III, Band 7, Bl. 188
Scenes from Room E, including Ramesses and Nefertari before the barque Abt III, Band 7, Bl. 189
Statues from the Cella (in color) Scenes from Room E, including Ramesses and Nefertari before the barque Abt III, Band 7, Bl. 190
Scenes from rooms G, H, J, K, L, M, N Abt III, Band 7, Bl. 191
Stela in Room F: Smiting scene with long text Abt III, Band 7, Bl. 194
Stelae outside (and to the south of) the temple Abt III, Band 7, Bl. 195
Large stela depicting Maathorneferure and Hattusilis (Hittite marriage) Abt III, Band 7, Bl. 196




Abu Simbel- Hathor Temple

To the north of the great temple is a smaller rock-cut temple. This temple is dedicated to Queen Nefertari and Hathor of Ibshek. The faC'ade of the temple shows colossal statues of both Ramesses and Queen Nefertari. Smaller statues of their sons and daughters flank the colossal statues of the king and Queen.


For a more detailed pictorial overview please visit Alain Guilleux's page:
http://alain.guilleux.free.fr/abou_simbel/petit_temple_abou_simbel_ibshek.html

 

On the left, the facade of the temple showing the colossal statues of Ramesses and Queen Nefertari.
On the right, Queen Nefertari before the goddess Hathor.

 

Nefertari shown between the goddesses Hathor and Isis.

 

Queen Nefertari before the goddess Anuqet, and Queen Nefertari before Hathor in a boat.





Queen Nefertari before the triad of Khnum, Satis and Anuqet

       

Nefertari shown on a pillar, with Ramesses before Hathor and by herself.





The plan of the HAthor temple at Abu Simbel was drawn by Lepsius. His drawings include:
The facade, pillars and the cella Abt III, Band 7, bl. 192
A pillar depicting Nefertari Abt III, Band 7, bl. 193



Abydos

Known as Abdju in ancient times. Ramesses II completed his father Sety I's temple, and constructed his own temples. Ramesses constructed a portal temple, whose function may have been to serve as a terminus of a processional route. His cenotaph temple is patterned on the plan of a mortuary temple and some of the reliefs that remain today show beautifully colored scenes.


Most of these images and the information comes from Jon Bodsworth's fabulous site. See:
http://www.egyptarchive.co.uk/html/ramesses_abydos_index.html


 

The first pylon of the temple has disappeared, and no trace of the roof remains.

 

Scenes from the walls of the Second Court. Priest bring offerings to the temple.

   

On the left, an entrance to a small chapel with images of Ramesses wearing the white and red crowns of egypt.
On the right, Ramesses II in a boat drawn by the souls of Pe and Nekhen.

 

A close-up of the gods pulling the boat and on the right the image of the god Thoth.

 

On the left, foreign prisoners with the names of captured territories.
On the right, Ramesses II before offerings (to Hathor).



 

On the left, goddesses representing the nomes of Egypt
On the right, one of three chapels dedicated to the Ennead


 

On the left, Ramesses and Horus in one of the three chapels.
On the right, Ramesses II before Osiris and a winged Djed-pillar.


 

On the left, a scene from a small side chapel off the Second Court.
On the right, a procession carrying a barque and offerings.




A relief showing the rekhyt on an outer wall of the temple.



Akhmim

In ancient times known as Ipu, later known as Khent-menu (Khemmis). A temple from the time of Ramesses II was found at this site. Remains of a colossal statue of Ramesses with Princess Queens Bint-Anath and Merytamen were found. The site is also famous for the colossal statue of Princess-Queen Merytamen.



White Queen  from Akhmin
(Picture by Sesen)



Aksha (Serra West)

This site, north of Wadi Halfa, in Nubia contained a temple and various chapel of Ramesses II. The temple was dedicated to Amun, Re and Ramesses himself in deified form.



Scenes from Aksha, Lepsius Abt III, Band 7, Bl 191


Amara West

This Nubian town near the third cataract of the Nile was the site of a temple of Ramesses II. The temple was dedicated to Amun and several local gods


Beit el-Wali

This Nubian temple was dedicated to Amun, but there are also statues of Isis, Horus, Khnum, Satis and Anukis in the sanctuary. Ramesses had this temple carved into a sandstone hillside. The temple was moved to higher ground (New Kalabsha) after the construction of the Awan dam.

For a more detailed pictorial overview please visit Alain Guilleux's page:
http://alain.guilleux.free.fr/beit_el_wali/lac_nasser_temple_beit_el_ouali.html

 

Ramesses II receiving tribute.


  

War scene. Ramesses is followed by his sons Amenherkhepeshef and Khaemwaset.

 

The entrance of the temple.
Ramesses II offering Maat.



       

Horus and Hathor depicted on the walls.
Hathor offers the heb-sed jubilee.



   

Ramesses making an offering in the sanctuary.


Bubastis

Bubastis is also referred to as Tell Basta. The city was the cult center of the cat-goddess Bastet and her sons Mihos and Horhekenu. Ramesses added to the temple complex, and a colossal statue of a Queen (Merytamen?) has been found at the site.
See Alain Guilleux's site for more information: http://alain.guilleux.free.fr/boubastis/boubastis.html

                    

The colossal statue of the Queen  

Deir el-Medina

A temple dedicated to Amun, Mut and Khonsu was erected by Ramesses.



Derr

Ramesses II dedicated this Nubian rock-cut tomb to Ptah, Amun-Re, the deified Ramesses, and Re-Harakhty. The temple is cut in a way similar to that of Abu Simbel, except that there are no seated colossi in front of the temple. This temple was later used as a Christian church and several decorations were lost at that time. The temple was moved to higher ground in 1964.


For more information see:
http://alain.guilleux.free.fr/derr/lac_nasser_temple_derr.html

 

On the left, Rammesses II offers nu vases to Amun-Re Kamutef and Isis.
On the right, a procession with a priest.

   

Ramesses in the tree of Ished.
Ramesses before Amun and Mut.
Ramesses before Onuris-Shu (son of Re).


Lepsius drawings include the "hypostyle hall" Abt III, Band 7, Bl. 183
The Hall, Cella and a stela Abt III, Band 7, Bl. 184

Elephantine

The main temple of the site is dedicated to Khnum, ram-headed lord of Elephantine. There is also a smaller temple of Satis, who is part of the major triad of the area: Khnum, Satis and Anukis. Ramesses II added to the temple of Khnum.


El Kab

El-Kab was known as Nekhen in ancient times. The temple of Thoth began in the earlier part of the 18th dynasty, and the outer pylon area was completed by Ramesses.


For more information about this site see:
http://alain.guilleux.free.fr/el_kab/el_kab_temples.html

 

On the left: the chapel of Thoth, constructed by Ramesses II.
On the right: a small sanctuary started by Ramesses II, and enlarged by later monarchs.




Ramesses II offers incense and milk to Re-Harakhty

Another great source for images of the temples of Ramesses II can be found at this site by Nofret (Carla):
http://www.egypt-kemet.com/index.php?id=ramsesII_01

She also has a page devoted to the Thoth chapel.
http://www.egypt-kemet.com/index.php?id=tothchapel_01


Faras

Ramesses enlarged this Nubian rock-cut chapel of Hathor of Ibshek. The chapel was probably started in the early 18th dynasty and later added onto by Tutankhamen and then further modified by Ramesses II.


Gebel el-Silsila

Horemheb built the great Speos at this site. Sety I, Ramesses II and Merenptah later added three cenotaphs to the south of the Speos.


Gerf Hussein

This Nubian temple of Ramesses II was partially free-standing and partially cut into the rock-face. The basic plan is similar to that of Abu Simbel (but at a much smaller scale). The temple was dedicated to Ptah, Ptah-Tatenen, Hathor, and the deified Ramesses himself.


For more information see:
http://alain.guilleux.free.fr/gerf_hussein/lac_nasser_temple_gerf_hussein.html


Gerf Hussein was rebuilt at the site of Kalabsha (2002).


 

The temple as it now appears. On the right a close-up of one of the Osiris figures.

   

On the left, Ramesses offers to Horus of Miam (Aniba).
In the middle we see Sekhmet, Ramesses as Khonsu, and Ptah.
On the right we see Ramesses offering incense.


Drawing by Lepsius, Abt III, Band 7, Bl. 178


Heliopolis

The ancient city of Iunu was the site of the Great temple of Atum. Mery-Atum, son of Ramesses and Nefertari served as High Priest of Atum at this temple.
Recent excavations at Ain-Shams have included the site of an enormous temple from the time of Ramesses II dedicated to the god Re. According to Dr. Hawass: "We are excavating the entrance area and the west side, and have found magazines for the storage of wheat, a kiln for making amulets, part of a large statue, the head of which weighs 5 tons and would have stood 6 meters tall, and another head of granite, weighing 2 tons." (see Dr. Hawass' website for the report)


Herakleopolis Magna

Known in ancient times as Henen-nesut, later called Herakleopolis Magna, modern Ihnasya el-Medina. The Cult center for the ram-headed god Herishef (Harsaphes). This temple was enlarged by Ramesses.


Hermopolis

Known as Khmun in ancient times. Dedicated to the god Thoth (Hermes), but there was also a temple dedicated to Amun. A pylon from the time of Ramesses II exists to the south, as well as two colossi.


Karnak

Karnak was known as Ipet-Isut in ancient times. The main temple is dedicated to Amun, with subsidiary temples deicated to Mut, Khonsu, Ptah, etc. Ramesses II added a quay to the complex on the west. He added two colossi before the second pylon. The hypostyle hall was started by Amenhotep III, continued by Sety I and finally completed under Ramesses II.


   

The avenue of Sphinxes.


 

On the left, the hypostyle hall. On the right Ramesses and Amun (or Min?)

   

On the left: South facade of the Hypostyle Hall; Ramesses II recorded his victory at the battle of Kadesh.
On the right: South facade of the Hypostyle Hall; more scenes from the battle of Kadesh.



 


Ramesses II built a temple to Re-Harakhty and Amun. This is one of the two Osiris figures flanking the entrance.


Luxor

Ramesses constructed a large pillared court and a pylon. The pylon is decorated with scenes from Kadesh. He also ordered the construction of a triple barque shrine for the visiting deities Amun, Mut, and Khonsu from Karnak.



 

 



 

On the left, Queen Nefertari next to a colossal statue of her husband.
On the right, Princess-Queen Bint-Anath


Medinet el-Fayum

Known in ancient times as Shedyet, later called Crocodilopolis and after that Arsinoe. Modern Medinet el-Fayum. This site was dedicated to the crocodile god Sobek. A middle kingdom temple was expanded by Ramesses II.




Memphis , modern Mit Rahina


Ramesses constructed a great temple to Ptah. His son Khaemwaset, and grandson Hori  would later serve as high priests. Outside the enclosure of Ptah, Ramesses built a small temple for Hathor.



Per-Ramesses (also called Pi-Ramesses), modern Qantir.

<>Temples of Re, Amun, Ptah and Seth, as well as smaller temples dedicated to Wadjet and Astarte were constructed in this city.
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Ramesseum

The mortuary temple of Ramesses , located on the west bank of the Nile in Thebes. This complex was started as early as year 2 of his reign. The temple was constructed for the king by Penre of Coptos and Amenmone of Abydos.
Associated with the Ramesseum are:



Chapel of the White Queen:
This chapel immediately outside the walls of the Ramesseum contained the famous statue of Princess-Queen Merytamen.



Temple of Tuya and Nefertari:
This small temple adjoined the Ramesseun on the north side and seems to have been dedicated to his mother Tuya and principal wife Nefertari.





       

On the left, the temple complex.
On the right, Queen-Mother Mut-Tuya.




Ramesses II presented to the gods. (photo by Sesen)


   

The sons depicted in the scene above. On the left, the three eldest: Amenhirkhepeshef, Ramesses and Prehirwenemef.
On the right, sons 3 through 7.
(Photos by Sesen)




Wadi-es-Sebua

This Nubian temple was partially fee-standing and partially rock-cut. The temple of Ramesses II was dedicated to Amun-Re and Re-Harakhty. This temple included a sphinx lined approach. The court contained 10 statues of Ramesses, executed in the rather heavy round style of the area. This temple was moved to a new site after the construction of the Aswan Dam. There was also a temple dedicated to the Nubian form of Horus and Amun in the area. This temple was built by Amenhotep III, damaged during the Amarna period, and finally restored by Ramesses II. This temple is now covered by Lake Nasser.


For a more detailed pictorial overview, please visit Alain Guilleux's wensite:
http://alain.guilleux.free.fr/ouadi_es_seboua/lac_nasser_temple_ouadi_es_seboua.html

    

Ramesses II offers to Onuris-Shu, Ramesses deified (i.e. himself), Tefnut and Nekhbet.



               

Ramesses II and Bint-Anath. On the right, a close-up of a daughter-queen.


Lepsius did several drawings of Sebua. There are drawings of:
The facade of the temple: Abt III, Band 7, Bl. 179
The cella: Abt III, Band 7, Bl. 180
The back wall of the cella: Abt III, Band 7, Bl. 181
Architrave, pillar and annex of the cella: Abt III, Band 7, Bl. 182






Comments: email barta@slu.edu