Ancient Egypt

         

Page by Anneke Bart





Kings and Queens

4th dynasty
Seneferu, Khufu, Khafre, Menkaure, Djedefre, etc.

11th dynasty
Kings named Mentuhotep and Intef

12th dynasty
Amenemhet I - IV,
Senusret I-III


18th dynasty
Amenhotep I-IV,
Tuthmosis I-IV, Akhenaten, Tutankhamen, Aye, Horemheb, etc.


19th dynasty
Sety I-II, Ramesses I-II, Merenptah, Amenmesses, Tawosret.

20th dynasty

Sethnakht, Ramesses III
Ramesses IV - XI

25th dynasty
Alara, Kashta, Piye,
Shabaka, Shabataka,
Taharqa, Tanutamun, etc.


Cleopatra VII Philopator

Queens (D1-6)- Old Kingdom
Queens (D11-13) Middle Kingd.
Queens (D16-20)- New Kingdom
Queens (D21-29)- Late Period




Officials, Priesthood etc.
Viziers (New Kingdom)
High Priests of Amun
God's Wives of Amun
High Priests of Ptah
Viceroys of Nubia
Who's who of New Kingdom


Amarna Period
Akhenaten
Queen Nefertiti
inscriptions Queen Nefertiti.
Queen Kiya

Smenkhare
Tutankhamen
Tombs at Amarna
Houses at Amarna

Tombs:
Valley of the Kings,
Valley of the Queens
Theban Tombs,
Tombs at Abydos
Tombs at El Kab
Tombs in Aswan
Early dynastic Saqqara
New Kingdom Saqqara
The Unis Cemetary

Mastabas at the Giza Plateau
Giza Mastabas 1000 cemetary
Giza Mastaba 2000 cemetary
Giza Mataba 2300 cemetary
Giza Mastaba 4000 cemetary
Giza Mastaba 5000 cemetary
Giza Mastaba 6000 cemetary
Giza Mastaba 7000 cemetary

Mummy Caches
Tomb DB320
Tomb KV35



Senmut



Some of his titles:
General: hereditary prince, count,  sole companion, Master of all people, chief of the whole land
Royal appointments: chief steward who conducted all the works of the king, one who heard the hearing alone in the privy council, master of the palace, real confidant of the king, privy councilor of the right hand, chief steward of the Princess, Nefrure
Administrative: wearer of the royal seal, steward of Amun, overseer of the granary of Amun, overseer of the storehouse of Amun, overseer of the works of Amun, overseer of all [works] of the house of silver, overseer of the gardens of Amun, Overseer of the cattle of Amun, Chief of the peasant-serfs of Amun, overseer of the temples of Neit.
Religious:  prophet of Amun, prophet of Maat, chief of the prophets of Montu in Hermonthis.

 
Senmut is a famous nobleman from the court of Hatshepsut. Senmut may have started his career during the reign of Tuthmosis I - Hatshepsut's father - or during the reign of Tuthmosis II - Hatshepsut's half-brother and husband. He rises to great prominence during the reign of Hatshepsut however.

Senmut (sometimes written Senenmut) was the son of Ramose and Hatnofret. Senmut's maternal grand-mother is known to be a lady named Sat-Djehuty. Senmut had several brothers: Amenemhet (Priest of the Barque of Amun), Min-hotep (Priest of Amun), and Pairi (Overseer of the Cattle). And he also had at least two sisters: Ah-hotep and Nofret-hor. His parents  were  reburied in Senmut's tomb. Senmut had two tombs in Thebes: TT71 and TT353.

Senmut  served  in many capacities. He held several positions related to the cult of Amun in Thebes. He was also the Steward of Queen Hatshepsut, the tutor of the royal daughter Neferura and he seved as an architect. His most famous contribution as an architect is the work he is thought to have done on Hatshepsut's beautiful temple at Deir el Bahari - named Djeser-Djeseru.

 
  

Senmut holding Princess Neferura
Field Museum, Chicago (Photo by John Dewerd)

Karnak Statue



A statue from Karnak, now in the British Museum
Possibly the statue describedd by Breasted (see below)
Photograph from Wiki Commons.

This statue was found in Karnak and was a gift from the Queen. The inscriptions are given in detail in Breasted's Ancient records and some of the details are quite interesting. Senmut lists his duties as Architect and it becomes clear from the inscription that his work was spread over a sizable area.

Statue given by Queen
Given as a favor of the king's-presence, the King of Upper and Lower Egypt, Maatkare (Hatshepsut), who is given life, to the hereditary prince, count, wearer of the royal seal, sole companion, steward of Amun, Senmut, triumphant; in order to be in the temple of Ishru; in order to receive the plenty that comes forth from before the presence of this great goddess.
Given as a favor of the king's-presence, extending the period of life to eternity, with a goodly memory Amung the people after the years that shall come; to the prince and count, overseer of the granary of Amun, Senmut, triumphant.
 
Duties as Architect
It was the chief steward, Senmut, who conducted all the works of the king: in Karnak, in Hermonthis, [in] Deir el-Bahari, of Amun, in the temple of Mut, in Ishru, in southern Opet of Amun (Luxor), in [the presence] of this august god, while maintaining the monuments of the Lord of the Two Lands, enlarging, restoring — works, without deafness, (but) according to all that was commanded at the court, L. P. H. It was commanded him that he should be — because he was so excellent for the heart (of the king). It came to pass in every respect, as was commanded by doing according to the desire of his majesty concerning it. His true servant, without his like; strong-hearted, not lax concerning the monuments of the lord of gods; wearer of the royal seal, prophet of Amun, Senmut.

The text is quite long, and only parts of it have been reproduced on this page. See Breasted, Ancient Records (Vol II).  Interesting is the mention of the statue being presented to Senmut by the King and the Queen. In this case this refers to Hatshesut and her stepson Tuthmosis III.

Statue Presented by King and Queen
Given as a favor of the king's-presence to the hereditary prince, count, steward of Amun, Senmut, triumphant, steward of the female Horus: Wosretkau (Hatshepsut), favorite of Horus: Shining-in-Thebes (Tuthmosis III), when maintaining their monuments forever, firm in favor with them every day.
Overseer of the fields of Amun, Senmut, triumphant.
Overseer of the gardens of Amun, Senmut.
Overseer of the cattle of Amun, Senmut, triumphant.
Chief steward of Amun, Senmut, triumphant.
Chief steward of the king, Senmut, triumphant.
Chief of the peasant-serfs of Amun, Senmut, triumphant.
 
One segment of the inscription mentions Senmut carrying the goddess Hathor in procession.

He Carries the Goddess in Processions:
Master of all people, chief of the whole land, steward of Amun, Senmut, triumphant, chief [steward] of the king, Senmut ; revered by the great god. When he carries Hathor, sovereign of Thebes, and Mut, mistress of Ishru, he causes her to appear, he bears her beauty, for the life, prosperity, and health of the King of Upper and Lower Egypt, Maatkare (Hatshepsut), living forever.

 

Aswan Inscription


Near Aswan a rock inscription mentions how Senmut was commissioned to move two obelisks from the quarries there to Thebes.
The text below comes from Breasted, Ancient Records, Vol. II.
 
Titles Accompanying the Queen
Hereditary princess, great in favor and kindness, great in love -- -- Re, the kingdom of heaven, who is true in the midst of the divine ennead, the King's-Daughter, the King's-Sister, the Divine Consort, the Great King's-Wife, Hatshepsut, who liveth, the beloved of Satet, mistress of Elephantine, the beloved of Khnum, lord of the Cataract.

Accompanying Senmut
Ascription of [honor] to the Divine Consort, Sovereign of the entire Two Lands, by the wearer of the royal seal, companion, great in love, chief steward, Senmut 
 
Record beneath the Two Figures
Came the hereditary prince, count, who [greatly] satisfies the heart of the Divine Consort, who pleases the Mistress of the Two Lands by his injunction, chief steward of the Princess, Nefrure, who liveth, Senmut, in order to conduct the work of two great obelisks of a Myriad-(of- Years). It took place according to that which was commanded; everything was done; it took place because of the fame of her majesty.
 

Inscriptions on the Berlin statue of Senmut and Neferure



Senmut and the princess Neferure
Altes Museum, Berlin (Image from Wiki Commons)

This block statue is another gift from his royal patrons. The inscriptions mention his relationship to the princess as her tutor. The text below comes from Breasted, Ancient Records, Vol. II.

Senmut, triumphant, not found among the writings of the ancestors, great father-tutor of the king's-daughter, Sovereign of the Two Lands, Divine Consort, Nefrure, -- -- which I did according to the thought of my heart -- -- --
 
Mortuary Prayer
A royal offering, which Amun-Re and the King of Upper and Lower Egypt, Maatkare, give; may they grant the mortuary oblation of bread, beer, oxen, geese, linen, incense, ointment.
 
A Royal Gift
Given as a favor of the king's-presence [to] the hereditary prince, count, companion, great in love, steward of Amun, Senmut.
 
Mortuary Prayer
A royal offering which Osiris, lord of Abydos gives; may he grant all that cometh forth from his table every day for the ka of the hereditary prince —  —  who greatly satisfies the heart of the Lord of the Two Lands, the favorite of the Good God, the overseer of the granary of Amun, Senmut.
 
Senmut's Favor with King and Queen
He says, "I was a noble, beloved of his lord, who entered upon the wonderful plans of the Mistress of the Two Lands. He exalted me before the Two Lands, he appointed me to be chief of his estate throughout the entire land. I was the superior of superiors, the chief of chiefs of works. I was in this land under his command since the occurrence of the death of his predecessor. I was in life
under the Mistress of the Two Lands, King of Upper and Lower Egypt, Maatkare (Hatshepsut), who liveth forever."


Other


There are many more statues of Senmut. Quite a few show him with Princess Neferure.



Senmut and Neferure.







Last edited: September 2008






Comments: email barta@slu.edu