Horus name: Djematawy
Nebty name: Mes-hemut
Golden Falcon name: Sasha-qenu
Piye became ruler of
ca. 747 BCE. He is thought to be a son of King Kashta. This theory is
based on the titles of Queen Khensa. She was a King's Sister as well as
a King's daughter. She is known to be a daughter of Kashta and most
likely a wife of Piye.
While Piye ruled Nubia,
was divided into many smaller principalities. In the earlier years of
his rule he seems to have focused mainly on Nubia itself. He had enough
influence in Thebes that his sister Amenirdis I was installed as an
adoratrix in the cult of Amun and as the heiress to the God's Wife
Shepenwepet I. (Another theory is that Amenirdis was adopted by
Shepenwepet I on Kashta's insistence.) Piye had treaties with
Peftjau-awy-bast from Nen-nesut (Heracleopolis) and Nimlot from Khemenu
(Hermopolis). After 740 BCE Tefnakht takes control of the area around
Sais and slowly begins to expand his territories. By 728 BCE
Tefnakht has expanded his sphere of influence to most of the Delta and
starts on a campaign which takes him further south. Nimlot defects to
Tefnakht's side, and when Tefnakht's army moves on Heracleopolis, Piye
decides to act.
Piye takes his army
defeats the combined Egyptian armies. Piye erected a victory stela
commemorating these events at
the temple of Amun at Gebel Barkal. This stela was discovered in 1862.
The stela gives a detailed description of the events. Piye's campaign
possibly took place in the 19th and 20 years of
his reign. (See Morkot: The Black Pharaohs for a more in depth
discussion of the campaign and alternate theories concerning the dates).
When Piye hears of
defection and Pefjau-awy-bast's resistance to the siege, he dipatches
his generals Lemersekny and Purem. The Nubian army travels north and
first engages the Egyptians in a naval battle. After defeating the
Egyptians they continue to Nen-nesut to come to the aid of
Peftjau-awy-bast. During the ensuing battle several Egyptian leaders
are killed. Sheshonq, Chief of the Ma of Per-Usir-nebdjebu (Busiris)
and Prince Bakennefi of Hut-hery-ib (Athribis) are among the dead.
Nimlot retreated to Khemenu, where he was besieged and defeated. There
is mention of messages and gifts from Nimlot to Piye, which had no
effect. Nimlot then sent his wife “the King's Wife, the King's
Daughter“ Nestjent to plead their case with the wives and daughters of
Piye. And only after these pleas did Piye accept Nimlot's surrender.
Piye moved further
besieged Tefnakht, in the process killing at least one son of Tefnakht.
Soon the rulers of the north surrender and offer tribute to Piye. These
rulers include Iuput, Akonosh and Pediese.
Soon after these events
Piye moves back to Napata, but the political landscape in Egypt had
Piye was buried in El Kurru 17. http://users.pandora.be/royalnames/nubians/rulers/piye.htm
King’s Daughter and King’s Wife. Daughter
of Alara and wife of Piye. She held some interesting titles: Main
King’s Wife (the only other queen to hold this title was Nefertiti) and
“the great one of the foreign country” (ta-aat-khesut). Buried in a
pyramid at Kurru. (Dodson –Hilton, Grajetzki) http://users.pandora.be/royalnames/nubians/royals/tabiry.htm
King’s Daughter, King’s Sister and King’s
Wife. Mentioned on a statue with Piye, and therefore associated with
him. Buried in Kurru. Attested in both Nubia and Egypt. (Dodson
–Hilton, Grajetzki) Known from Granite offering-stone from stair in
offering-stone, various alabaster vases, all with double cartouches and
varying titles, steatite ball in Boston, silver basin in Boston
(Dunham and Macadam) http://users.pandora.be/royalnames/nubians/royals/khe%F1sa.htm
King’s Mother, King’s Sister, Mistress of the
foreign lands, Lady of Upper and Lower Egypt. Mother of King Taharqa
and most likely a wife of Piye. (Dodson –Hilton, Grajetzki) Pyramid: El
Kurru 53 http://users.pandora.be/royalnames/nubians/royals/abalo.htm
King’s Daughter and Great Royal Wife.
Mentioned in Gebel Barkal, and on monuments of courtiers, Buried in
Abydos. (Dodson –Hilton) http://users.pandora.be/royalnames/nubians/royals/peksater.htm
Wife of Pie, and possibly a daughter of Kashta. Known from a shabti
(Dunham and Macadam)
Son and successor of Piye.
Likely a son of Piye. Successor of Shabaka
Succeeds to the throne after his brother
Shabaka and Shabitqo
King’s Son. Har was the father of Lady
Wadjrenes, who married the Theban nobleman Montuemhat. (Dodson –Hilton)
King’s Son, Governor of Kanad (Dodson
(Irty, Araty) King’s Daughter , King’s Wife,
etc. Wife of Shebitqa. (Dodson –Hilton, Grajetzki) Tomb El-Kurru 6. http://users.pandora.be/royalnames/nubians/royals/irty.htm
King’s Sister, King’s Mother. Wife of
Shabaka and mother of the later King Tanutamun (Dodson –Hilton).
Pyramid: El-Kurru 5. http://users.pandora.be/royalnames/nubians/royals/qalhata.htm
King’s Daughter , King’s Wife King’s
Sister etc. Wife of Taharqa or Shebitqa. (Dodson –Hilton, Grajetzki)
King’s Sister, King’s Wife, etc. Wife of
Taharqa. Buried in el-Kurru pyramid 3. (Dodson –Hilton, Grajetzki) http://users.pandora.be/royalnames/nubians/royals/naparaye.htm
King’s Sister, King’s Wife, etc. Wife
of Taharqa. Shown behind Taharqa in gebel Barkal Temple. (Dodson
–Hilton, Grajetzki) http://users.pandora.be/royalnames/nubians/royals/takahatamani.htm
II – Henutneferumut-iryetre. God’s Wife
of Amun and Adoratrice. (Dodson –Hilton) Buried in Medinet Habu. http://users.pandora.be/royalnames/nubians/royals/shepenupet%20II.htm
Many of these leaders are recorded on the Victory stela from Gebel
Barkal. Additional information comes from K. Kitchen's book about the
Third Intermediate Period and Morkot's Black Pharaohs.
Chief of the Ma from 755-740. Osorkon is a contemporary of Piye, but
does not actively engage Piye. The time of conflict takes place more
than a decade after Osorkon's ruler over Sais
IV Akheperre Setepenamun
(730-715). King of Bubastis / Tanis. Son of King Shoshenq V and Queen
Tadibast. Pharaoh Osorkon IV the area of Bubastis and Tanis in the
Eastern Delta in 728 after Piye conquered Egypt. Earlier it was thought
that the Osorkon mentioned by Piye was King Osorkon III, but recently
Osorkon has been identified as the fourth king of that name.
Iuput II Usermaatre Setepenamun
754- 720 or
dynasty ruler of Tjent-remu (Leontopolis). Probably a son of King
Rudamun. An inscription at Wadi Gasus mentions Year 12, Adoratrix of
the God Amenirdis (I) ; year 19 the God's Wife Shepenwepet (I). This
likely refers to Year 12 of Piye and year 19 of Iuput II. Amenirdis was
the sister of Piye, and Shepenwepet was the aunt of Iuput II. Iuput's
Queen may have been named Tent-kat[...] based on an inscription on a
bronze door hinge from Tell Moqdam (Leontopolis). After Piye
conquered Memphis in ca. 728 BCE, Iuput soon submitted to Piye.
(754 – 725) – King at Khemenu (Hermopolis). Nimlot had been closely
allied with the Nubians, but as Tefnakht moved south, Nimlot defected.
When Piye moved his armies into Egypt Nimlot surrendered. Nimlot was
married to the King's Wife, the King's Daughter Nes-tent (-meh). It is
not clear whose daughter Nestent was.
Kitchen speculates that
Nimlot may have been a son of Osorkon III. Nimlot is a Libyan name
which may indicate that Osorkon III decided to install one of his sons
as king in Hermopolis. If this theory is correct, Nimlot would have
been a brother of Takelot III, Rudamun and the God's Wife Shepenwepet I
and related to Iuput II and distantly related to Peftjau-awy-bast.
Nimlot was succeeded by Thutemhat.
was a local king from Heracleopolis (ca. 754 – 720 BCE). One of his
queens , named Ir-bast-udja-nefu, was the daughter of King Rudamun and
likely then a sister of Iuput II. She was the mother of
Pediamennebnesttawy. Another queen of Peftjau-awy-bast was named
Tasherenese. In 728 BCE Peftjau-awy-bast had an alliance with Piye and
helped in the fight against Tefnakhtof Sais and Nimlot of Hermopolis.
held the title Chief of the Ma during the time period
740-727. In 727 Tefnakht I takes power as Tefnakht I Shepsesre. (24th
dynasty) By the time Piye moved on Egypt Tefnakht had control over most
of the western delta. Tefnakht turn ed his eye towards the south and at
some point besieged Peftjau-awy-bast in Heracleopolis. At this point –
in ca 728 – Piye moves north from Napata to engage Tefnakht. Tefnakht
has to retreat before the armies of Piye, but retains his throne. Very
shortly after the war with Pite, Tefnakht dies and is succeeded by
Bakenrenef, who was likely his son.
Wahkare: Saite King (24th dynasty) Successor
ranked Princes and minor rulers mentioned on the victory stela:
- Bakennefi and Pediese
– Hereditary Princes of Athribis and Heliopolis. Bakennefi was killed
at the battle of Nen-nesut. Pediese was a younger son of Bekennefi. The
eldest son Nesnaisu was with his father at the battle of Nen-nesut. But
Nesnaisu later inherited the smaller principality of Ka-heseb. Pediese
would continue to rule Athribis.
– A small local ruler in Ka-heseb in the Delta. Apparently an older
brother of Pediese of Athribis and Heliopolis and hence a son of
- Sheshonq, Chief of the Ma of
Per-Usir-nebdjebu (Busiris). Killed during battle.
- Pamiu (Pamai),
son of Soshenq (IV) ruled Per-Usir-neb-Djedu (Busiris). After the death
of his father Sheshonq at the battle Nen-nesut Pamiu became ruler of
- Djed-Amen-ef-Ankh ruled Per-Banebdjed
(Mendes) and Granary of Re.
- Ank-Hor,eldest son of Djed-Amen-ef-ankh
and general. Ank-Hor was a local ruler in a small fief near Mendes.
- Akunosh –
Ruler of domain stretching from Tjeb-netjer (Sebennytos) to and
Per-heby (Isidopolis) Sma-behdet (tell el-Balamun) and the sea. Akunosh
may have married a Nubian lady as part of the treaty. He is known to
have had a daughter named Takushit (“the Kushite”). Another daughter of
Akunosh – named Nes-Bastet-Rud – is called King's Wife, but it is not
clear which king she married.
- Patjenfy (iii) (Patchenefy)
– Ruled the southern route into the Delta from Pi-Sopd and granary of
Inbu-hedj. May have married a Nubian princess. Remained loyal under
Shabaqa and Shebitqo. His son Pekrur succeeded him in time.
- Nakhthorneshu (Nakhthornashenu) of
Per-gerer, Count and Chief of the Ma
- Pentaweret, Chief of the Ma
- Pentibekhenet, Chief of the Ma
- Pedi-Hor-sema-tawy (Padihorsomtus),
Prophet of Horus, Lord of Khem
- Horbes of Per-Sekhmet-nebet-Sau and
- Djedkhiyu (Djedkhiu) of Khent-nefer,
- Pabasa of of Ker-aha and Per-Hapy, Count.
Last edited: May 2008