Ancient Egypt

         

Page by Anneke Bart




 

Kings and Queens

4th dynasty
Seneferu, Khufu, Khafre, Menkaure, Djedefre, etc.

11th dynasty
Kings named Mentuhotep and Intef

12th dynasty
Amenemhet I - IV,
Senusret I-III


18th dynasty
Amenhotep I-IV,
Tuthmosis I-IV, Akhenaten, Tutankhamen, Aye, Horemheb, etc.


19th dynasty
Sety I-II, Ramesses I-II, Merenptah, Amenmesses, Tawosret.

20th dynasty

Sethnakht, Ramesses III
Ramesses IV - XI


Cleopatra VII Philopator

Queens (D1-6)- Old Kingdom
Queens (D11-13) Middle Kingd.
Queens (D16-20)- New Kingdom
Queens (D21-29)- Late Period



 

Officials, Priesthood etc.
Viziers (New Kingdom)
High Priests of Amun
God's Wives of Amun
High Priests of Ptah
Viceroys of Nubia
Who's who of New Kingdom


Amarna Period
Akhenaten
Queen Nefertiti
inscriptions Queen Nefertiti.
Queen Kiya

Smenkhare
Tutankhamen
Tombs at Amarna
Houses at Amarna

 
Tombs:
Valley of the Kings,
Valley of the Queens
Theban Tombs,
Tombs at Abydos
Tombs at El Kab
Tombs in Aswan
Early dynastic Saqqara
New Kingdom Saqqara
The Unis Cemetary

 
Mastabas at the Giza Plateau
Giza Mastabas 1000 cemetary
Giza Mastaba 2000 cemetary
Giza Mataba 2300 cemetary
Giza Mastaba 4000 cemetary
Giza Mastaba 5000 cemetary
Giza Mastaba 6000 cemetary
Giza Mastaba 7000 cemetary
 

Mummy Caches
Tomb DB320
Tomb KV35


Menkaure





Statue from the Boston Museum of Fine Arts.

(18 years, ca 2414 – 2396 BCE)
Horus name: Ka-khet
Nebty name: Ka-nebty
Golden Falcon name: Netjeru-nub-netjery
Nomen: Menkaure
(from digitalegypt)

Greek: Mycerinos


Son of Khafre and Queen Khamerernebty I. Menkaure followed his father on the throne.
Several of his half brothers served at court as Vizier. His cousin Mindjedef (son of Kawab) may have been treasurer for Menkaure.
Not much is known from the time of Menkaure. His monuments at Giza show some of the building projects Menkaure was involved in and the statues found in the temples give us a glimpse of the art of the time period, but not much else is known.
Menkaure's principal wife was Khamerenebti II and Rheketre may have been another wife of Menkaure. It is not known for instance is Menkaure's successor Shepseskaf was related to him. It has been suggested that Shepseskaf was a son of Menkaure by a minor Queen, but this is not certain.



Menkaure's pyramid (From Egyptarchive - Jon Bodsworth)

Pyramid:
Menkaure's pyramid at Giza was called The Netjer-er-Menkaure which means "Menkaure is Divine". Theis pyramid is the smallest of the three pyramids at Giza.

Three subsidiary pyramids ("Queen's pyramids")
These pyramids are sometimes labeled G-IIIa (East subsidiary pyramid), G-IIIb (Middle subsidiary pyramid) and G-IIIc (West subsidiary pyramid). In the chapel associated with G-IIIa a statue of a Queen was found. It is possible that these pyramids were meant for the Queens of Khafre. It may be that Khamerernebti II was buried in one of the pyramids.

Valley Temple
The Valley temple was a mainly brick built structure which was enlarged in the 5th or 6th dynasty. From this temple come the famous statues of Menkaure with his Queen and Menkaure with several deities.

A partial list includes:
  • Nome triad, Hathor Mistress-of-the-Sycamore seated, and King and Hare-nome goddess standing, greywacke, in Boston Mus. 09.200.
  • Nome triad, King, Hathor Mistress-of-the-Sycamore' and Theban nome-god standing, greywacke, in Cairo Mus. Ent. 40678.
  • Nome triad, King, Hathor Mistress-of-the-Sycamore1 and Jackal-nome goddess standing, greywacke, in Cairo Mus. Ent. 40679.
  • Nome triad, King, Hathor Mistress-of-the-Sycamore' and bat-fetish nome-goddess standing, greywacke, in Cairo Mus. Ent. 46499.
  • Nome triad, King, Hathor, and nome-god standing, greywacke, middle part in Boston Mus. 11.3147, head of King in Brussels, Mus. Roy. E. 3074.
  • Double-statue,’ King and wife (Khamerernebti II) standing, uninscribed, greywacke, in Boston Mus. 11.1738.
  • King seated, life-size, fragmentary, alabaster, in Cairo Mus. Ent. 40703.
  • King seated, lower part, inscribed seat, alabaster, in Boston Mus. 09.202
This information comes from Porter and Moss, for more complete information see: Download from Gizapyramids.org



Menkaure and Khamernebty.

Mortuary Temple
At this temple more statues and statue fragments were found. An interesting find is a fragment of a wand from Queen Khamerenebti I. The piece is now in the Boston Museum of Fine Arts. Khamerernebti is given the title King's Mother on the fragment.


Wives:
  • Khamerernebty II, Held many titles among which King’s eldest daughter of his body, King’s Wife, Seer of Horus and Seth, Great One of the Hetes-scepter, Priestess of Bapef, Priestess of Thoth, etc. Tomb in Giza (Central Field). Daughter of Khafre and Khamerernebti I.
  • Rekhetre (?) King’s Daughter (of his Body), King’s Wife, great one of the hetes-scepter, etc. Daughter of Khafre and most likely a wife of Menkaure.


Sons:
  • Khuenre King’s eldest son of his body, Sole companion of his father.  Son of Menkaure and Khamerenebti II. Buried in Menkaure's Cemetary (MQ 1).
  • Shepseskaf? The next pharaoh was in all likelyhood a son of Menkaure.
  • Sekemre? Eldest King's son of his body. Known from a statue found at Giza. Possibly a son of Kamerernebti - Dodson/Hilton


Daughters:
  • Khentkaues I? It is possible that Queen Khentkaues I was a daughter of Menkaure. Her mastaba is associated with the pyramid complex of Menkaure and this may indicate a family relationship. Khentkaues I seems to form some connection between the 4th and 5th dynasty, but the precise relationships are not known. It is possible that Khentkaues was a wife of Shepseskaf.




Triad depicting Menkaure and two goddesses (From egyptarchive - Jon Bodsworth)




Other people from the time of Menkaure

Akhi. Overseer of all works of the King, Overseer of the Two Treasuries, Overseer of the royal granaries, etc. G 4750.

Du(ae)nre Son of Khafre and Meresankh III. Buried in Mastaba G 5110. Served as Vizier during the reign of his brother Menkaure.

Seneferu-khaf 
Son of the Vizier Nefermaat II and great-grandson of Seneferu. Sneferu-khaf may have lived into the ealry 5th dynasty.
Treasurer of the King of Lower Egypt, Herdsman of Apis, etc.Tomb G 7070

Prince Duaenhor
King’s son of his body, Companion of his father. Probably a son of Kawab and Hetepheres II. Lived during the reigns of Khafre en Menkaure. Buried in G 7550 (LG 58)

Prince Mindjedef. King’s son of his body, Hereditary prince, Treasurer of the King of Lower Egypt, etc. Possibly a son of Kawab and Hetepheres II. Married to lady Khufu-ankh. Tomb G 7760.

Prince Sekhemkare. King’s eldest son of his body, Chief Justice and Vizier
Son of Khafre and Queen Henukehedjet. Buried in G 8154 (= LG 89). Probably served as Vizier under Userkaf and Sahure. Married to Lady Khufu[...], a royal acquaintance.

Khaemnefert. Royal chamberlain. Mastaba at Giza (G II). The sarcophagus is now in the Roemer- und Pelizaeusmuseum in Hildesheim.

Khufudjedef. King's son, Master of the [royal] largesse. Tomb at Giza: G I-South Cemetery - Mastaba IV. The sarcophagus is now in the Roemer- und Pelizaeusmuseum in Hildesheim.

Niankhre. G I-South Cemetery: Mastaba V (LG 52)

Nebemakhet. King’s son of his body, Chief Justice and Vizier, etc.
Son of Khafre and Meresankh III. Nebemakhet is mentioned in Meresankh's tomb G 7530-7540). Buried in G 8172 (Lepsius  86)? Two tombs are ascribed to Nebemakhet according to Porter ad Moss: LG 12 in the Quarry cemetary west of the second pyramid, and LG 86 in the central field. Married to Nubhotep, Prophetess of Hathor Mistress-of-the-Sycamore in all her places, etc. Mentioned in the tomb of his brother Duaenre.

Nikaure: According to Porter and Moss Nikaure held the titles King’s eldest son of his body, Chief Justice and
Vizier (of Menkaure). His wife Nekennebti (Nikanebti) was a prophetess of Hathor Mistress-of-the-Sycamore in all her places, and of Neith, etc. Nikaure is said to be a son of Khafre and Queen Personet. Tomb: LG 87 (G 8158).

Debhen (Debehen). Overlord of Nekheb, Secretary of the Toilet-house, Master of the largesse in the Mansion of Life, etc. Tomb G 8090 (= LG 90)

 

Entrance to Debhen's tomb and an inscription describes the construction of the tomb
with materials granted to Debhen by Menkaure. (Jon Bodsworth)

Iunmin King's eldest son of his body, Chief Justice and Vizier (of Menkaure), etc.
Possibly a son of Khafre; Iunmin was married to the lady Khamerernebti. Tomb G 8080 (= LG 92)

Ankhmare.  King's eldest son of his body, Chief Justice and Vizier (of Menkaure), Treasurer of his father the King of Lower Egypt, etc. Son of Khafre and Meresankh III, mentioned in the tomb of his brother Nebemakhet. Mastaba in Giza G 8460.



References:

Dodson, Hilton The Complete Royal Families of Ancient Egypt, London 2004
N-C. Grimal, A History of Ancient Egypt
Porter and Moss, Topographical Bibliography of Ancient Egyptian Hieroglyphic Texts, Reliefs, and Paintings; Part III; Download from Gizapyramids.org

































































Comments: email barta@slu.edu