Ancient Egypt


Page by Anneke Bart





Kings and Queens

4th dynasty
Seneferu, Khufu, Khafre, Menkaure, Djedefre, etc.

5th dynasty
Userkaf, Sahure, Neferirkare,  Niuserre, Djedkare Isesi, Unas, etc

6th dynasty
Teti, Userkare, Pepi I, Nemtyemsaf I, Pepi II, Nitocris, etc.

11th dynasty
Kings named Mentuhotep and Intef

12th dynasty
Amenemhet I - IV,
Senusret I-III


18th dynasty
Amenhotep I-IV,
Tuthmosis I-IV, Akhenaten, Tutankhamen, Aye, Horemheb, etc.


19th dynasty
Sety I-II, Ramesses I-II, Merenptah, Amenmesses, Tawosret.

20th dynasty
Sethnakht, Ramesses III
Ramesses IV - XI

25th dynasty
Alara, Kashta, Piye,
Shabaka, Shabataka,
Taharqa, Tanutamun, etc.

Cleopatra VII Philopator

Queens (D1-6)- Old Kingdom
Queens (D11-13) Middle Kingd.
Queens (D16-20)- New Kingdom
Queens (D21-29)- Late Period




Officials, Priesthood etc.
Viziers (New Kingdom)
High Priests of Amun
God's Wives of Amun
High Priests of Ptah
Viceroys of Nubia
Who's who of New Kingdom


Amarna Period
Akhenaten
Queen Nefertiti
inscriptions Queen Nefertiti.
Queen Kiya

Smenkhare
Tutankhamen
Tombs at Amarna
Houses at Amarna

Tombs:
Valley of the Kings,
Valley of the Queens
Theban Tombs,
Tombs at Abydos
Tombs at El Kab
Tombs in Aswan
Early dynastic Saqqara
New Kingdom Saqqara
The Unis Cemetary

Mastabas at the Giza Plateau
Giza Mastabas 1000 cemetary
Giza Mastaba 2000 cemetary
Giza Mataba 2300 cemetary
Giza Mastaba 4000 cemetary
Giza Mastaba 5000 cemetary
Giza Mastaba 6000 cemetary
Giza Mastaba 7000 cemetary

Mummy Caches
Tomb DB320
Tomb KV35

High Priests of Ptah in Memphis


The High Priest of Ptah is a very old office. The oldest known High Priests of Ptah I could find date back to the Old Kingdom.
The High Priest Of Ptah was sometimes referred to as the Greatest of the Directors of the Craftsmen. This title refers to Ptah as the patron god of the craftsmen. The office of the High Priest of Ptah was located in Memphis and as a result quite a few of them were buried in nearby Saqqara.
There used to be two high Priests of Ptah until the 6th dynasty. It was probably during the reign of Pepi I that the two offices were combined into one.

The main resource about High Priests of Ptah is:
Charles Maystre : Les Grands prêtres de Ptah de Memphis, N°113 - Orbis biblicus et orientalis - Universitätsverl, Freiburg - 1992

Some information can also be found at the French Wikipedia site: Grand Pretre de Ptah; and the google translation of this page into English.

The egyptian titles are:
wr xrp Hmwt - Greatest of the directors of craftsmen, i.e. High Priest of Ptah
sm - Sem Priest (of Ptah)




Old Kingdom


HPM Ptah-Du-Auu, High Priest of the Ka of Ptah and Director of the Craftsmen of the Temple of Ptah of the White Wall, Dyn 4

HPM Ptashepses, Dynasty 4 and 5. Ptahshepses was raised at the court of Pharaoh Menkaure. He married Princess Khamaat, the daughter of king Shepseskaf. He served seven kings: Menkaure, Shepseskaf, Userkaf, Sahure, Neferirkare, Raneferef, and Neuserre.
Reliefs from the tomb of Ptahshepses can be found in the Museum of Liverpool:
http://www.globalegyptianmuseum.com/record.aspx?id=3860&lan=E

HPM Ranofer, Dynasty 5. Reigns of Shepseskaf to Userkaf.
The egyptian Museum has a standing statue of Ranefer as a youth. See global egyptian museum.



Two statues of Ranefer, See Egyptologia site for larger image.

Kanefer. Dynasty 5, reign of Sahure. Buried in Saqqara?
Items from Kanefer's tomb are known from musea. Two offering tables exist at the British Museum and Ny Carlsberg Glyptotek of Copenhagen respectively. A statue group of KAnefer, his wife Tjentety and thier son Khuwyptah is in the Kimbell Art Museum of Strong Worth (Texas)

Kanefer with his wife Tjen-tety and his son Khuwyptah
See Kimbell Museum for more detail

Khuwyptah Dynasty 5, reign of Neferirkare Kakai. Buried in Saqqara.
Son of the previous High Priest Kanefer. Scenes in Khouiptah's tomb show his father Kanefer as well.

Ptahshepses II. Dynassty 5, reign of Unas. Buried in Saqqara.
His tomb was found in Saqqarah by Mariette, then excavated by de Morgan in the late 1800s. Ptahshepses' tomb lies a little in the north of the mastaba of Ptahshepses I, who served during the reign of Shepseskaf.
Liverpool Museeum has part of the tomb of Ptahshepses in tis collection. See Global Egyptian Museum

HPM Sabu also called Ibebi. Served under Unis and Teti (5th and 6th dynasty)

HPM Sabu also called Thety
. Time of Teti, possibly to Pepi I (dynasty 6). Sabu-Thety was the successor of Sabu-Ibebi as High Priest of Ptah and may have been his son. An inscription on a false door mentions that Sabu-Thety was the first single High Priest of Ptah. Before this time there had apparently always been two High Priests. The unification into one high priesthood may have taken place under Pepi I.

HPM Sabu also called “the black”. Another High Priest of Ptah of roughly the same time period

HPM Impy Greatest of the directors of craftsmen, etc., son of Ankhu, probably 1st Int. Period (Louvre)



Middle Kingdom




Ptahemheb
11th Dynasty.

Dynasty 12

HPM Sehetepebre-ankh ,Greatest of the directors of craftsmen, temp. Senusret I (Statue in Brooklyn Museum)

HPM Senewosret-Ankh, Buried at Lisht near the pyramid of Senusret I.

HPM Hakore-ankh at Memphis. under Amenenhet II

Nebkaure-ankh temp. Senusret III

Ouahet temp. Senusret III

HPM Nefertem, Greatest of the directors of craftsmen, Dyn. 12, (Statue in Newark Museum)

HPM Sehetepebre-ankhnedjem, time of Senusret III to Amenemhat III.

HPM Nebipu, son of HPM Sehetepebre-[ankhnedjem-]nekhen, all Greatest of the directors of craftsmen late Dyn. 12, reign of Amenemhat III.  (Louvre)

(...)hotepib(rê?) Sheri  Time of Amenemhat III

Impy I. Time of Amenemhat III - Amenemhat IV


13th Dynasty

Sergem  Time of Iby I

HPM
Senbuy,
Known from
Stela, E. SS. 37 in the Fitzwilliam Museum. The stela shown Senbuy with his wife Nubemheb, and was dedicated by a son Re-Seth. (Bourriau, J., Three Monuments from Memphis in the Fitzwilliam Museum, JEA 68 (1982), 51-59)

Impy II ?

Ptahemhat  15th dynasty



New Kingdom

Dynasty 18-19-20

Pahemred    Time of Amenhotep I     Possibly buried in Saqqara ?

Sennefer       Time of Amenhotep II     Possibly buried in Saqqara ?

Sem-Priest-of-Ptah Amenhotep: King’s son, Executive (Title borne by the Crown Prince), Sem-priest of Ptah at Memphis. This son may have been the original heir of Amenhotep II. Mentioned in a papyrus at the British Museum.

HPM Ptahmose: Chancellor, High Priest of Ptah at Memphis. Also written as Ptahmes. He was a brother of Meryptah, the prophet and treasurer of the temple of Nebmaatre. They were the sons of the Mayor and Vizier Djehutymes (Tuthmosis) and his wife Tawy. Time of Tuthmosis IV – Amenhotep III?
This may be the High Priest from a statue in the Cairo Museum: Ptahmosi , Greatest of the directors of craftsmen, etc., with cartouches of Tuthmosis IV, in Cairo Mus. CG 584 (http://griffith.ashmus.ox.ac.uk/gri/s15.html)

Penbenebes      Time of Amenhotep III     Possibly buried in Saqqara ?

Wermer        Time of Amenhotep III     Possibly buried in Saqqara ?

HPM Ptahmose: Son of Menkheperre. Reign of Amenhotep III.

There are statues of a butler of Ptahmose known: Ankh-ptah, Servant of the greatest of the directors of craftsmen Ptahmosi , with text mentioning the goddesses Kadesh and Asyt (Astarte), of Syria, and temple of Ptah (http://griffith.ashmus.ox.ac.uk/gri/s15.html)
Ankh-ptah , Butler of the greatest of the directors of craftsmen Ptahmosi , Head of singers of the temple of Ptah, , in Budapest, Szépmvészeti Múzeum, 51.2164. (http://griffith.ashmus.ox.ac.uk/gri/s16.html)

SPP/HPM Tuthmose : Son of Amenhotep III and Queen Tiye;
Eldest King's Son, High Priest of Ptah at Memphis, Sem-Priest of Ptah at Memphis, Overseer of the Prophets of Upper and Lower Egypt.


Prince Tuthmosis depicted on a bier with a ba bird on his chest.
The inscription mentions "the King's Son, Sem Priest, Tuthmose".

The prince seems to have died during the third decade of the reign of Amenhotep III.

HPM Ptahemhat called Ty: Time of Tutankhamen and/or Aye. A block of his Saqqara tomb show members of Egyptian government including Horemheb. Stela BM 972 which shows the High Priest of Ptah Ptahemhat Ty receiving offerings from his son Hay, a functionary of the temple of Bastet, was found in the cat necropolis of Saqqara. This may mean that his tomb is located in that general area.
Zivie, A., La localisation de la tombe du grand-prêtre de Ptah Ptahemhat-Ty, RdE 35 (1984), 200-203.



Funerary cone of Ty (Ptahemhat), from Wikimedia Commons.

HPM Meryptah
: Late 18th dynasty Possibly from the time of Ay and Horemheb. Buried in Saqqara.
Object related to this high priest include: a relief block from the Badisches Landesmuseum, a naophorous statue Louvre A.60, offering table Berlin 2273, and canopic jars Louvre N 2987-9. (For more detail see: Gamer-Wallert, I., Das Grab des Hohenpriesters des Ptah, mrj-ptH, in Saqqara, in: Die Welt des Orients, 99-129.)

Amenhotep First Prophet of Ptah (maybe at Thebes?), Wife Meryt, songstress of Amun, Daughter Takhat, songstress of Amun Dyn 18-19. From Thebes.  (http://griffith.ashmus.ox.ac.uk/gri/s13.html)

Djeserka, first prophet of Ptah-Sokaris, time of Seti I mentioned in TT277

Sokaremsaf     Time of Sety I     Possibly buried in Saqqqara?

Netjeruihotep      Time of Sety I     Possibly buried in Saqqqara?

HPM Iry-Iry: Time of Ramses II. Mentioned by K.A. Kitchen.

HPM Huy: reign of Ramesses II. Possibly from year 2. Shown in year 16 officiating over the burial of an Apis bull with Khaemwaset and Ramses II.

HPM Pahemnetjer: The sarcophagus of Pahemnetjer is in the British Museum even though the location of his tomb is not known. It’s presumed to be in Saqqara. Pahemnetjer probably followed Huy as High Priest of Ptah.
Pahemnetjer was the son of a dignitary named Mahu - according to a block from Florence. Pahemnetjer was married to a lady named Huneroy, and he was the father of both Didia and Parahotep the younger. Ca year 20 of Ramses II
From Statue: Pahemneter , Greatest of the directors of craftsmen, etc., in Cairo Mus. CG 1087. (http://griffith.ashmus.ox.ac.uk/gri/s17.html)
Mentioned on a statue of his son - the Vizier (Pa)Rahotep:
Rahotep  (i.e. Parahotep), Governor of the Town and Vizier, etc., son of Pahemneter , Greatest of the directors of craftsmen of Ptah,  Brit. Mus. EA 712 (http://griffith.ashmus.ox.ac.uk/gri/s14.html)
S
tatue mentioned in: Proceedings of the Society of Biblical Archaeology; v.14 (1891-92)


HPM Didia: Elder son of Pahemnetjer. Brother of the Vizier Parahotep the younger. Ca yr 35 of reign of Ramesses II

SPP/HPM Khaemwaset:
King’s Son of his Body, Executive at the Head of the Two Lands. Son of Ramses and Isetnofret. Crown Prince from year 50 to 55. One of the best known sons of Ramses. Known as one of the first archeologists. He was famous in ancient Egypt, and later featured as the hero Setne-Khaemwese in a cycle of stories written in the Late/Ptolemaic times. Khaemwaset became Sem Priest of Ptah in ca year 16 and High Priest of Ptah in year 45.

 

Head of a statue thought to be Khaemwaset. From Berlin.

SPP Ramesses:
Son of Prince Khaemwaset, brother of Hori

HPM Parahotep(II), son of Pahemnetjer. After serving as Vizier, Parahotep also became High Priest of Ptah and High Priest of Re in ca year 55 of Ramses II.
Rahotep (i.e. Parahotep), Governor of the Town and Vizier, etc., son of Pahemneter, Greatest of the directors of craftsmen of Ptah, now in Brit. Mus. EA 712. http://griffith.ashmus.ox.ac.uk/gri/s14.html

HPM Neferronpet. In year 60 of the reign of Ramses. Likely the same Neferronpet who was made Southern Vizier in year 50.
A pyramidion is featured on this global egyptian museum page.

HPM Hori:
Son of Prince Khaemwaset. Became HPM in year 65/66 of the reign of Ramses. He continued to serve under his uncle Merneptah.
Statue inscribed for: Hori, Greatest of the directors of craftsmen, etc., son of Khaemweset, Greatest of the directors of craftsmen, Statue in Brit. Mus. EA 845. http://griffith.ashmus.ox.ac.uk/gri/s15.html

Iyri     Time of Sety II     Possibly buried in Saqqqara?

Ptahemhat     Time of Ramesses III     

SPP (Ramesses-)Khaemwaset: son of Ramesses III and Queen Iset.
Khaemwaset was buried in the Queens Valley (QV44).

HPM Khaemwaset, also Governor of Town and Vizier, time of Ramses IX (statue)
Khaemwese Governor of the Town and Vizier, Greatest of the directors of craftsmen of Ptah, etc.,  temp. Ramesses IX-X, in Aix-en-Provence, Musée Granet, 849-1-4-S. http://griffith.ashmus.ox.ac.uk/gri/s13.html

Néferrenpet     Time of Ramsesses IX     



Dynasty 21

Many of these names come from genealogy stela now in the Louvre and in Berlin.

HPM Ptahemakhet.

HPM Ashakhet I. c. 1040-1025
Time of Amenemnisu and maybe in the initial decade of Psusennes I's reign.
Known only from Berlin 23673. Ashaket is associated with King Amenemnisu. [Kitchen, TIP, 1996 ed]

HPM Pipi A. ca. 1025-1005Time of Psusennes I.
Son of Ashaket A. [Kitchen, TIP, 1996 ed]

HPM Harsiese  ca. 1005-995  Time of Psusennes I
Son of Pipi A [Kitchen, TIP, 1996 ed]

HPM Neterkheperre Meryptah called Pipi II ca. 995-975
According to Kitchen: the high priest Pipi B is attested under Siamun on a temple building at Memphis, where the well-sculptured gateways included a lintel of the high priest 'Neterkheperre Meryptah who is called Piupiu'. Probably served, Psusennes I, Amenemope, Osochor and during the first couple of years of Siamun. [Kitchen, TIP, 1996 ed]

HPM Ashaket II. ca. 975-960. Son of HPM Pipi II. Father of  HPM Ankhefensekhmet.
Son of the High Priest Pipi B. [Kitchen, TIP, 1996 ed, pg. 111-116 ]

HPM Ankhefensekhmet.
  ca. 960-940. Dated to the time of Siamen. Son of Ashaket. Married to the lady Tapeshenese, First Chief of the Harem of Ptah and Prophetess of Mut (this title was held by all wives of the High Priests of Ptah). [Kitchen, TIP, 1996 ed, pg. 111-116 ]

HPM Shedsu-nefertum. ca. 940-920. His wife Tanetsepeh was the daughter of Pasebakhaienniut. End of Dynasty 21, beginning of dynasty 22. Shedsunefertem was the son of the High Priest Ankhefensekhmet. A statue from Cairo (cat. 741) depicts Shedsunefertum and his mother Tapeshenese. She is given the titles First Chief of the Harem of Ptah and Prophetess of Mut. Also mentioned on the statue are two wives for Shedsunefertum, Mehtenweskhet (daughter of Nimlot A and Tentsepeh A, and hence a sister of Shoshenq I)) and Tentsepeh B (daughter of Psusennes I). [Kitchen, TIP, 1996 ed, pg. 111-116 ]




Dynasty 22

HPM Shoshenq C:  ca 920-895  Time of Osorkon I?
Kitchen has a HPM Shoshenk as the son of Shedsunefertum. Father of Osorkon A [Kitchen, TIP, 1996 ed]



Chapel of Shoshenq, from Memphis. Now in the yard of the Cairo Museum.
Image from Wikimedia Commons. Click on picture to see larger image.

Osorkon A ca. 895 –870 Time of Osorkon I, Takeloth I and Osorkon II?
Son of Shoshenq C. Last High Priest from this powerful family. Osorkon’s son Takelot A becomes Sem Priest, but the High Priest position went to Shoshenq D, who was a son of the ruling king Osorkon II. A grandson of Osorkon A, by the name of Osorkon is mentioned on a stela from the Louvre. This grandson is a God’s Father. [Kitchen, TIP, 1996 ed]

Shoshenq D
ca. 870-851 Time of Osorkon II
Shoshenq D is named on a statue as: “Great Chief Prince of His Majesty, High Priest and Sem Priest of Ptah, Great King’s Son of the Lord of the Two lands Usimare Stepenamun, Son of Re, Lord of Epiphanies Osorkon (II) Meryamun Si-Bart, his mother being Karomama” Shoshenq D is known from his burial and from an Apis-burial in year 23 of Ososrkon II. [Kitchen, TIP, 1996 ed, pg. 100-103 ] [Dodson, Hilton, pg 222]
Nagy, I., Statue naophore du prince héritier Chéchonq, Grand Prêtre de Ptah, Bulletin de Musée Hongrois des Beaux-Arts, Budapest 82 (1995), 11-19.

HPM Merenptah
, c. 851-830 Time of Takeloth II
The relation of this High priest to the other pontiffs is not known. He is named on a block with cartouches of Takeloth II [Kitchen, TIP, 1996 ed, pg193]

HPM Takelot B ca. 830-810 Time of Takeloth II and Shoshenq III
Son of Shoshenq D and known from his burial in Memphis. Takelot married his aunt Tjesbastperu (daughter of Osorkon II). Their children include the future High Priest Pediese and his wife Tairy. [Kitchen, TIP, 1996 ed, pg. 100-103 ] [Dodson, Hilton, pg 212-213]


HPM Pedieset:  c. 810-770 
Son of HPM Takelot and Princess Tjesbastperu. Great grandson of Osorkon II. Served as High Priest after his father Takelot died. Passed on the office to his son Peftjauawybast in ca year 28 of Shoshenq III. Came back in office after his son died and served at least until year 2 of Pimay. Pedieset was married to his (half-)sister Tairy. Another interpretation may be that his son Peftjauawybast (son of Tairy) seems to have served alongside his father for some time. His son Takelot D was a Sem priest.[Kitchen, TIP, 1996 ed, pg.100-103] A third son of Pediese was the later Sem priest of Ptah and High Priest of Ptah Harsiese. Harsiese served as Sempriest during the later years of Pediese’s tenure as High Priest. [Dodson, Hilton, pg 220]


HPM Peftjauawybast:
ca. 790-780 Time of Shoshenq III
Son of Pedieset and the lady Tairy. Brother of Takelot (D) and Harsiese. A stela dated to year 28 of Shoshenq III commemorating the burial of an Apis bull shows Pef-tjau-awy-Bast as high priest, while his father Pediese is named Chief of the Ma. From other monuments it appears that Pediese would remain High Priest until at least year 2 of Pimay. This suggests that Pimay installed his son Pef-tjau-awy-Bast as high priest for a time. Pef-tjau-awy-Bast was later replaced by Pediese’s son Harsiese. [Kitchen, TIP, 1996 ed, pg. 192-194 ]

SPP Takelot (D):
Son of Pedieset by a second wife. Serves as sem priest during the office of his brother Peftjauawybast.

SPP/HPM Harsiese.  ca. 780-760 Time of Pimay.
Son of Pedieset by a third wife named Her-bast. Served first as Sem Priest and later as High Priest. Served as High Priest at the burial of the Apis bull in the second year of Pimay’s reign. Buried in Memphis. [Dodson, Hilton, pg 218]


Dynasty 25

HPM Pedekhons?, Greatest of the craftsmen, son of Harsiesi, Prophet, and Takhybiat, probably Dyn. 25, (statue in Louvre)

HPM Ankhefensekhmet (B),  ca. 760-740 Time of Shoshenq IV
Son of Harsiese. Known from Cairo statue 1212. [Kitchen, TIP, 1996 ed] Greatest of the directors of craftsmen, Dyn. 25 (statue in New York, Metropolitan Museum of Art)

Dynasty 26

HPM Pedepep, Greatest of the directors of craftsmen, Prophet of Ptah and Bubastis, mistress of Ankhtaui , temp. Psammetikhos I, (statue in Aberdeen, Anthropological Museum)

HPM Pefteuemauibaste, Greatest of the directors of craftsmen, Late Period, (Statue in Berlin, Ägyptisches Museum)




Ptolemaic Period


The high priests of Ptah ('chief of directors of craft') of the Ptolemaic Period are known from a number of monuments. Inscriptions, mainly on stelae, make it possible to reconstruct the history of the office over three hundred years.
They formed a strong ruling family, occupying many influential priestly positions in Memphis and elsewhere. Their wives also hold important priestly positions, most often musicians. In addition the family had a close relation to the ruling dynasty, the Ptolemies. Some of the Ptolemies were crowned by the high priest of Ptah at Memphis, and the high priests served as scribes in the cult of Arsinoe, which was an important dynastic cult. There are even family relations to the king's house. Psenptais II was married to Berenice who was the daughter of Ptolemy VIII. The office of the high priest of Ptah is last attested in the year 23 BC; it seems not to have been continued under Roman rule.
(From digitalegypt)


HPM Nesisti-Pedubast, son of Anemhor I and Renpet-neferet. Married to Renpet-neferet and Nefersobek. Children included Pedubast, Khonsiu, Amenhor II, Nefertiti and Neferibre.

HPM Pedubast I, son of Nesisti-Pedubast and Nefersobek.

HPM Amenhor II, son of Nesisti-Pedubast and Nefersobek. Married Herankh. Children include Djedhor, Horemakhet and possibly Horemhotep.

HPM Djedhor son of Amenhor II and Herankh.

HPM Horemakhet (223 BCE) son of Amenhor II and Herankh.

HPM Nesisti (ca 190 BCE?), son of Horemakhet and Nefertiti. Succeeded Horemakhet as High Priest of Memphis5 probably between 194/3 and 180

HPM Pedubast II, son of Psherenptah and Taimhotep. Grandson of Horemakhet and Nefertiti.

HPM Psherenptah II, son of Pedubast II

HPM Pedubast III (103 BCE), son of Psherenptah II and Berenice (probably daughter of Ptolemy VIII)

HPM Psherenptah III (76 BCE), son of Pedubast III and Herankh-beludje

HPM Imhotep-Pedubast (39 BCE), son of Psherenptah III and Taimhotep

HPM Psherenamun I (30 BCE), brother-in-law of Psherenptah III. Son of Ka-hapi and Her-ankh

HPM Psherenamun II
(27 BCE), son of Psherenamun I and Taneferher.

http://www.geocities.com/christopherjbennett/ptolemies/hpms/genealogy.htm













Comments: email barta@slu.edu