Conjectural date of reign: 1472 BC – 1457 BC
Horus name: Weseretkau
Nebty name: Wadjrenput
Golden Falcon name: Netjeretkhau
Thutmosis I (Akheperkhare)
Queen Ahmose held the titles: Hereditary Princess (iryt-p`t), Great of Praises (wrt-hzwt), Mistress of Great
Beloved Sweetness (nebt-bnrt-‘3(t)-mrwt),
Great King’s Wife, his beloved (hmt-niswt-wrt
meryt.f), Mistress of Gladness (hnwt-ndjm-ib),
Lady of all Women (hnwt-hmwt-nbwt),
Mistress of the Two Lands (hnwt-t3wy),Companion
of Horus (zm3yt-hrw), Beloved
Companion of Horus (zm3yt-hrw-mryt.f),
King’s Sister (snt-niswt).
According to her titles she was a King's Sister. Some believe she was a
sister of King Amenhotep, and served as a royal connection to the old
ruling family. It is equally possible that she was a sister of King
Tuthmosis I. She was clearly a high ranking royal lady. She is known to
have had at least two daughters: Hatshepsut and a princess mentioned in
the Temple of Deir en Bahari, by the name of Neferubity.
Thutmosis II (Akheperenre), Amenmose, Wadjmose, Ramose (?)
Queen Ahmose, King Tuthmosis
and the princess Neferubity
Thutmosis II (Akheperenre)
Neferure. She was the daughter of Hatshepsut and Tuthmosis II. She
served as God’s Wife after her mother. Neferure may have been a queen
during the early reign of her (step-) brother Tuthmosis III. The
queenly titles come from an inscription later usurped
for Tuthmosis’ mother Isis. Neferure's titles include: King’s
Daughter (s3t-niswt), God’s
Possibly: Great King’s Wife (hmt-niswt-wrt),
Mistress of Upper and Lower Egypt (hnwt-Shm’w
Princess Neferure carried by
her tutor Senenmut.
Statue from the Field Museum in
Chicago (Thanks John :) )
Thutmosis III (Menkheperre)
Hatshepsut with her husband Tuthmosis II (from Luxor)
Photo Courtesy of Alain
Hatshepsut was a daughter of the Pharaoh Thutmosis I. She would later
claim that her father appointed her as his heir to the throne.
The fact is though that Thutmosis I was followed on the throne by his
son Thutmosis II. Thutmosis II reigned for 12 years. During this time
period Hatshepsut is depicted as Great Royal Wife.
Hatshepsut as nesw-bity (king), but dressed as a woman (from
Photo Courtesy of Alain
At the time of the death of Tuthmosis II, his son - Thutmosis III -
was only a child. At first Hatshepsut seems to have taken on the role
regent, but at some point she declared herself pharaoh. She had herself
depicted in the guise of a man complete with false beard.
The Chapelle Rouge at Karnak.
Hatshepsut commissioned this red quartzite barque sanctuary of Amen.
The photograph on the right shows a close-up of the red chapel. The
monument also bears the cartouche of Hatshepsut's step-son and
successor Tuthmose III which can be seen here.
Deir el Bahari Mortuary temple (“Djeser
The temple see from the front and from a vantage point in the
(The picture on the right is by Sesen)
The Osiris Statues and one of the heads (pictures by Yuti)
The architect of this masterpiece is generally thought to be Senenmut,
but he never claims to have designed the temple. His title is
‘Controller of the works in Djeser-Djeseru’. In may places the
wonderful colors of the temple inscriptions are still preserved.
Speos Artemidos Temple in Middle Egypt
Near Beni Hassan Hatshepsut dedicated two temples to the fierce lion
goddess Pakhet. One temple was later called the Speos Artemidos
(Grotto of Artemis) because Pakhet was equated with the Greek goddess
Artemis. This temple remained intact until the reign of Seti I, when it
The other temple, the speos Batn el-Bakarah, was heavily damaged by
Temples at Thebes:
Just to the East of the entrance of Rameses III's temple is a smaller
temple that dates originally to the time of Hatshepsut and Thotmose
III. It was enlarged as late as the Roman era. The two columns in the
photograph were added in the Ptolemaic period. (description from
egyptarchive - J Bodsworth)
In Karnak we find an obelisk of Hatshepsut and her father Tuthmosis I,
as well as a fallen obelisk dated to the time of Queen Hatshepsut.
Below, on the left we see a close-up of the
fallen obelisk of Hatshepsut
On the right, we see the obelisk of Hatshepsut viewed from beside the
Sanctuary with the Hall of Records of Tuthmose III in between.
Just beyond the 6th Pylon a wall has been
reconstructed in a small chapel. The relief depicted below shows Horus
on the left and Thoth on the right. The central figure of Hatshepsut
and her cartouches have been erased. (description from egyptarchive - J
Great events during her reign:
Expedition to the land of Punt
According to the inscriptions at the temple at Deir el Bahari
an expedition was sent to the land of Punt in year 9 of pharaoh
Hatshepsut. Nehsi was appointed the leader of this expedition. Upon
return to Egypt
the expedition brought back 31 fresh myrrh trees (to be
planted at the temple at Deir el Bahari), electrum, eye cosmetics,
throw sticks of the Puntites, ebony, ivory, a southern panther, many
panther skins and 3300 small cattle. [Breasted]
Excavations in December 2004 have brought some caves to light
where the ships used for this expedition have been stored. These caves
were found near a pharaonic harbour on Egypt's Red Sea coast.
House on stilts in the land of Punt - from Deir el Bahari
(Photo by yuti)
Sed-Jubilee in year 15.
Sed jubilees or festivals were usually celebrated in the 30th
year of the monarch’s reign, but it was not unheard of for kings to
celebrate such a festival at an earlier time.
Burial and Mummy of
Hatshepsut's father Tuthmosis I was originally buried in the Valley of
the Kings KV20. This tomb was designed by the royal architect Ineni.
Hatshepsut enlarged the tomb so that it could contain a double burial;
namely Hatshepsut and her father Tuthmosis I.
The sarcophagus (left and
middle) and the canopic chest of Hatshepsut.
step-son and successor Tuthmosis III later moved the body of Tuthmosis
I to KV38. It is not known what happened to the body of Queen
Hathepsut. A canopic jar with mummified organs and inscribed with the
name of Hatshepsut was found in the royal cache DB320.
Recently it has been suggested that a mummy found in KV60 - the tom of
the royal nurse Sitre, called In - may be Hatshepsut's body. At first
it was suggested (Ryan) that the mummy that was found on the floor was
that of Hatshepsut. More recently Hawass has suggested that the body in
the coffin (inscribed for the royal nurse Sitre) is actually that of
this famous Queen.
In June 2007 it was announced that the mummy on the floor of KV60 was
identified as being Queen Hatshepsut. A chest with a jar containing a
liver was found in DB320 - the royal cache from Thebes - and this jar
also contained a tooth fragment. The tooth fragment matches a chipped
tooth from this mummy. The mummy now identified as Queen Hatshepsut
shows a heavy set woman of ca. 50 years. Her body shows that she may
have suffered from diabetes and scans from the pelvic area may indicate
that she suffered from liver cancer.
Hatshepsut reigned ca 22 years and hence must have been about 28 years
old when her husband Pharaoh Tuthmosis II died and she became regent
for her step-son Tuthmosis III. Counting back further she must have
been ca 15 or 16 when she married Tuthmosis II and became great royal
See also Theban Mapping Project KV20
See also this article about the research and finding (with some great
photographs) by Dr
Important Court Officials
Senenmut with Princess Neferure
Ahmose Pen-nekhbet Soldier, possibly father of
Satiah the wife of Thutmosis III. He was appointed tutor of the royal
princess Neferure together with Senenmut.[Breasted].
Amenhotep Chief Steward
Djehutinefer: Attendant to the Wife of the God.
Married to lady Benemeb. (Statue in the Louvre) Time of Hatshepsut or
Senenmut Steward of the Queen, Steward of the
Estates of Amen, Vizier, Tutor to the Princess Neferure with Ahmose
Sitre (called In(et) ) Wet-nurse to Hatshepsut.
Tjutju , Overseer of the gs-pr of the mistress of
the Two Lands, etc., son of Kahirkhentiu and Henutiri
Hapuseneb (Southern Vizier?) (TT67) Hapuseneb
also served as High priest of Amun under Hatshepsut. He seems to have
been one of the great supporters of this Queen. Son of Hapu (Lecture
Priest of Amun) and Ahhotep. A shrine at Gebel el Silsile mentione his
brother Sa-Amun and his sister Ahmose. The same shrine mentions his
sons Djehutjmes-machet, User-pechtj,
Aa-cheper-ka-ra-nefer (High Priest at the
Mortuary Temple of Thutmosis II), and several daughters. his titles
include: director of all royal work, keeper of the seal of the King
of Lower Egypt. See
page maintained by Dr. K. Leser
Amethu called Ahmose
(Southern Vizier) (TT83). Wife:
Ta-amethu. Sons: Neferweben (Vizier), User (Vizier - TT61 and 131),
Amenhotep (Overseer of the Magazine of Amun - TT122), Akheperkare
(Priest of Monthu - mentioned in TT122), Amenmose (?) (Scribe in the
treasury of Amen). Grand-children:
Rekhmire (Vizier), son of Neferweben , Merymaet (Second Prophet of
Amun), son of Amenhotep.
Useramen Vizier He was the son of the previous Vizier
Ahmose and the uncle of the next Vizier Rekhmire (Rekhmire dates to the
time of Thutmosis III). Served as deputy Vizier when his father was old.
Viceroy of Kush (i.e. Nubia)
Seni: Served as Viceroy under Ahmose- Tuthmosis
II and probably in the first year of Hatshepsut/Tuthmosis' co-regency.
Amen-em-nekhu: According to Pammiger, sometime
after year 2 of Hatshepsut/Tuthmosis III, Seni retired and was
succeeded by Amen-em-nekhu, a confidant of Hatshepsut. After
Hatshepsut's death, in year 23 Amenemnekhu was replaced by Nehi, a
confidant of Tuthmosis III.
Inebni Viceroy of Kush in latter part of
reign? Not certain if Inebni served as Viceroy. He did hold the
title of Commander of the Bowmen. It is interesting that on a statue of
his Inebni (Enebni) refers to Thutmosis III as Hatshepsut’s
brother [Breasted] There’s a statue of an Inebny in the British Museum
who is recorded as being commander of bowmen and overseer of the king's
weapons. It was 'made by the favour' of the joint sovereigns Hatshepsut
(1479-1457 BC) and Thutmose III (1479-1425 BC), who ruled together for
a time. However, Hatshepsut's name has subsequently been erased.
Ineni Architect, Overseer of the double gold and silver houses.
Ineni had served Amenhotep I, Thutmosis I, and Thutmosis II.
He would die during the co-regency of Thutmosis III and Hatshepsut. It
is clear from his monuments that Thutmosis III is the son of Thutmosis
II, and that even during the early co-regency of Thutmosis III and
Hatshepsut, before she declared herself Pharaoh, all the power really
lay with Hatshepsut.
Neshi, Chancellor, leader of the expedition to
Punt, Chief treasurer. Buried in Saqqara (tomb discovered by Zivie)
Sennefer Mayor of Thebes
Thutiy: Overseer of the double gold and silver
houses. He was the successor of Ineni in this position. He was a loyal
supporter of Hatshepsut and throughout his tomb his name and that of
the Queen have been erased. In the punt reliefs he is shown taking
notes during the weighing and the measuring. He is named as the scribe
and Steward Thutiy. Other titles given on a Stela on the façade
of his tomb include:Great
Favorite of the Lord of the Two Lands, Chief of Prophets in Hermopolis,
Wearer of the Royal Seal, and many more.
Djehuty, overseer of the treasury, In 2003 a
sarcophagus of a woman was discovered buried in the tombs courtyard. It
is not known who she is. Djehhuty was overseer of the treasury and
overseer of the works for Hatshepsut. He lived on into Thutmosis III’s
reign. Both pharaohs are represented in the tomb. TT11
Djehuti , Overseer of the treasury of Montu, etc.
(probably TT 11), dedicated by son Mentunakht.
Hapuseneb High Priest of Amun, Chief of the
Prophets of South and North, Builder of the royal tomb. Hapuseneb was
the most powerful man in Hatshepsut’s party. The formation of the
priesthood of the whole land into a coherent organization, with a
single individual at it’s head, appears for the first time. This meant
that through Hapuseneb, Hatshepsut had the entire priesthood on her
side. [Breasted] Hapuseneb was buried in TT67.
Parents: Hepu (third lector of Amun) and Ahhotep (Royal concubine);
Wife: Amenhotep. Brother: Sa-Amun; Sister:
Ahmose; Sons: Djehutjmes-machet, User-pekht, Aa-cheper-ka-ra-nefer;
Daughters: Henut, Henut-nefert, Sen-seneb, Ta-em-resefu . See
Puyemre Second Prophet of Amen
Thutiy: Chief of Prophets in Hermopolis, Overseer
of the double gold and silver houses. He was the successor of Ineni
in this position. He was a loyal supporter of Hatshepsut and throughout
his tomb his name and that of the Queen have been erased. In the punt
reliefs he is shown taking notes during the weighing and the measuring.
named as the scribe and Steward Thutiy. Other titles given on a Stela
on the façade of his tomb include:Great Favorite of the Lord of
the Two Lands, Wearer of the Royal Seal, and many more.
Bibliography / Recommended Reading
Breasted, J.H. Ancient Records of Egypt, Vol2, The eighteenth
dynasty. Chicago 1906 (reprinted in 2001)
Dodson A. and Hilton D. The Complete Royal Families of Ancient Egypt,
Tyldesley, J., Hatchepsut, the Female Pharaoh. 1996 (reprinted London
maintained by Dr. Karl Leser dedicated to Hatshepsut and her time
Last edited: April 2007