Ancient Egypt

         

Page by Anneke Bart





Kings and Queens

4th dynasty
Seneferu, Khufu, Khafre, Menkaure, Djedefre, etc.

5th dynasty
Userkaf, Sahure, Neferirkare,  Niuserre, Djedkare Isesi, Unas, etc

6th dynasty
Teti, Userkare, Pepi I, Nemtyemsaf I, Pepi II, Nitocris, etc.

11th dynasty
Kings named Mentuhotep and Intef

12th dynasty
Amenemhet I - IV,
Senusret I-III


18th dynasty
Amenhotep I-IV,
Tuthmosis I-IV, Akhenaten, Tutankhamen, Aye, Horemheb, etc.


19th dynasty
Sety I-II, Ramesses I-II, Merenptah, Amenmesses, Tawosret.

20th dynasty
Sethnakht, Ramesses III
Ramesses IV - XI

25th dynasty
Alara, Kashta, Piye,
Shabaka, Shabataka,
Taharqa, Tanutamun, etc.


Cleopatra VII Philopator

Queens (D1-6)- Old Kingdom
Queens (D11-13) Middle Kingd.
Queens (D16-20)- New Kingdom
Queens (D21-29)- Late Period




Officials, Priesthood etc.
Viziers (New Kingdom)
High Priests of Amun
God's Wives of Amun
High Priests of Ptah
Viceroys of Nubia
Who's who of New Kingdom


Amarna Period
Akhenaten
Queen Nefertiti
inscriptions Queen Nefertiti.
Queen Kiya

Smenkhare
Tutankhamen
Tombs at Amarna
Houses at Amarna

Tombs:
Valley of the Kings,
Valley of the Queens
Theban Tombs,
Tombs at Abydos
Tombs at El Kab
Tombs in Aswan
Early dynastic Saqqara
New Kingdom Saqqara
The Unis Cemetary

Mastabas at the Giza Plateau
Giza Mastabas 1000 cemetary
Giza Mastaba 2000 cemetary
Giza Mataba 2300 cemetary
Giza Mastaba 4000 cemetary
Giza Mastaba 5000 cemetary
Giza Mastaba 6000 cemetary
Giza Mastaba 7000 cemetary

Mummy Caches
Tomb DB320
Tomb KV35

Cleopatra VII Philopator
70/69 – 30 B.C.
Queen of Egypt.



   

Horus name: Wernebneferu akhetdjeh
Prenomen: Cleopatra


  • Daughter of Ptolemy XII Auletes (117- 51 BC) , probably by Cleopatra V Tryphaena (ca 70-69 BC)
  • Succeeded her father Ptolemy XII with her brother Ptolemy XIII in 51 BC
  • Was expelled from Egypt in mid 48 BC.
  • Restored to power in August 48 B.C. by Julius Caesar. With her brother Ptolemy XIV as co-ruler.
  • Associated as senior ruler with her son Ptolemy XV probably 4 th September 44 BC
  • Died in 30 B.C.


Ptolemy XII, father of Cleopatra


Spouses / Liaisons:
  • Julius Caesar, (100 -  44 BC) A Roman military and political leader.
  • Ptolemy XIII (62 - 47 B.C) Joined forces with his sister Arsinoe against his other sister Cleopatra VII. Said to have drowned while trying to cross the Nile in January 47 BC.
  • Ptolemy XIV (60 - 44 BC) Co-ruler with Cleopatra 47 - 44 BC. Cleopatra is rumoured to have poisened her younger brother so she could place her son Caesarion on the throne.
  • Marc Anthony,  (82 - 30 BC), A Roman politician and general. He was an important supporter of Julius Caesar as a military commander and administrator. After Caesar's assassination, Antony allied with Octavian and Marcus Aemilius Lepidus to form the second triumvirate. The triumvirate broke up in 33 BC and the disagreement turned to civil war in 31 BC, in which Antony was defeated by Octavian at the Battle of Actium and then at Alexandria. (from wikipedia)

Children:
  • Ptolemy XV Caesarion, probably son of Julius Caesar.
  • Alexander Helios, twins born of Marc Anthony. Born 40 B.C.
  • Cleopatra Selene, twins born of Marc Anthony. Born 40 B.C. Later married to Juba II of Mauretania.
  • Ptolemy Philadelphus, youngest son with Marc Anthony. Born 36 B.C.


Cleopatra VII and Ptolemy XV Caesarion at the temple of Dendera


Brothers and sisters of Cleopatra:
  • Berenice IV: Ruled as queen with Cleopatra VI, ( =? Cleopatra V), possibly coregent with Archelaus, deposed by Ptolemy XII, executed by him shortly thereafter.
  • Arsinoe IV. She was declared queen of Egypt in opposition to Ptolemy XIII and Cleopatra VII. Captured by Julius Caesar and marched in triumph in Rome. Executed by Antony allegedly at the request of Cleopatra VII, probably buried in Ephesus
  • Ptolemy XIII and Ptolemy XIV younger brothers who at some point were married to Cleopatra.
  • Cleopatra VI Tryphaena (II) ?: Possibly an older (half-) sister of Cleopatra VII. The records are somewhat confusing. Some think There was no second Cleopatra Tryphaena. The proponents of one individual named Cleopatra Tryphaena think that she was the wife of Ptolemy Auletes and the mother of all of his known children. This means that Cleopatra Tryphaena and her daughter Berenice would have ruled as motehr and daughter, before being removed from power by Ptolemy Auletes. Others think that Cleopatra Tryphaena (II) was a daughter of the elder Cleopatra Tryphaena and ruled with her sister Berenice. A third theory is that Cleopatra VI was a sister of Ptolemy Auletes and hence an aunt of Cleopatra VII Philopator.



People from the time of Cleopatra VII

Achillas, a half greek general of Egypt, involved in the overthrow of Cleopatra in 48 BC. Tried to set up Arsinoe as queen instead of Cleopatra. Achillas was murdered by Ganymede.
Archibios, - (=? Horemakhbyt in Egyptian) : An intimate of the queen. After the defeat of Anthony and Cleopatra at Actium his statues were hauled down, in contrast to those of Cleopatra VII, which were spared in exchange for the payment of 2000 talents to Octavianus by Archibios.
Callimachus, Commander of the Red Sea and the Indian Sea, powerful Theban leader.
Charmion handmaiden of the queen who died with her.
Ganymedes, eunuch in charge of the upbringing of the princess Arsinoe. After the execution of Achilles at the orders of Arsinoe, Ganymedes becomes the leader of her army in 48 B.C.
Horemheb (Weben-ra-empet) was vizier under Cleopatra VII.
Imhotep-Pedubast, High Priest of Ptah in Memphis, hereditary prince and count, gods father, sm-priest, prophet of the window of appearance, prophet of pharaoh; Son of Psherenptah III and Taimhotep. Became high priest in 39 B.C. Died in 30 B.C. but was not buried until 7 years later. This may point to an unnatural cause of death.  http://www.geocities.com/christopherjbennett/ptolemies/hpms/imhotep.htm
Iras handmaiden of the queen who died with her.
Juba II, husband of Cleopatra Selene, daughter of Cleopatra VII
Octavian. Succeeded Julius Caesar and was the adversary of Anthony and Cleopatra at the battle of Actium.
Olympus, Cleopatra’s physician. He later published an account of her last days.
Pompey, Roman leader in charge of the royal children after Ptolemy Auletes (Cleopatra’s father) died. He was the senate appointed guardian of Ptolemy XIII. His reputation was destroyed by a major military defeat. Murdered as he stepped ashore in Alexandria in 48 BC.
Pothinus, a eunuch and chief power at court, involved in the attempted overthrow of Cleopatra in 48 BC. Favored Cleopatra’s brother Ptolemy XIII. Executed by Julius Caesar.
Psherenamun II, High Priest of Ptah in Memphis, god's father, prophet of Ptah, prophet of Min lord of Senut, etc; son of Kha-hapi probably by Herankh. Married his sister Taneferher. Probably installed as HPM in 30/29 B.C., probably died in 28/7 B.C.
http://www.geocities.com/christopherjbennett/ptolemies/hpms/psherenamun_i.htm
Psherenptah III, High Priest of Memphis, stm-priest, god's father, prophet of Ptah, etc.. Son of the High Priest of Ptah Pedubast III and Herankh-beludje. Later married to Taimhotep, sistrum player and priestess of Ptah, daughter of Kha-hapi and Herankh. Psherenptah was buried during the reign of Cleopatra.
http://www.geocities.com/christopherjbennett/ptolemies/hpms/psherenptah_iii.htm
Theodotus (of Chios), tutor of Ptolemy XIII – Cleopatra’s brother, Theodotus was one of the men involved in the attempted overthrow of Cleopatra in 48 BC.
Yuya Amenhotep was Vizier under Cleopatra VII


         

Left: A Stela depicting Cleopatra offering to Isis.
Right: A statue thought by some to depict Cleopatra.


Sources:

1. Bennett, C. Geneology of the Ptolemies:
http://www.geocities.com/christopherjbennett/ptolemies/genealogy.htm

2. Bevan R.E. The house of Ptolemy:
http://penelope.uchicago.edu/Thayer/E/Gazetteer/Places/Africa/Egypt/_Texts/BEVHOP/13*.html

3. Dodson A. and Hilton D. The Complete Royal Families of Ancient Egypt, London 2004









Comments: email barta@slu.edu