Ancient Egypt



Page by Anneke Bart





Kings and Queens

4th dynasty
Seneferu, Khufu, Khafre, Menkaure, Djedefre, etc.

11th dynasty
Kings named Mentuhotep and Intef

12th dynasty
Amenemhet I - IV,
Senusret I-III


18th dynasty
Amenhotep I-IV,
Tuthmosis I-IV, Akhenaten, Tutankhamen, Aye, Horemheb, etc.


19th dynasty
Sety I-II, Ramesses I-II, Merenptah, Amenmesses, Tawosret.

20th dynasty

Sethnakht, Ramesses III
Ramesses IV - XI
 

25th dynasty
Alara, Kashta, Piye,
Shabaka, Shabataka,
Taharqa, Tanutamun, etc.


Cleopatra VII Philopator

Queens (D1-6)- Old Kingdom
Queens (D11-13) Middle Kingd.
Queens (D16-20)- New Kingdom
Queens (D21-29)- Late Period




Officials, Priesthood etc.
Viziers (New Kingdom)
High Priests of Amun
God's Wives of Amun
High Priests of Ptah
Viceroys of Nubia
Who's who of New Kingdom


Amarna Period
Akhenaten
Queen Nefertiti
inscriptions Queen Nefertiti.
Queen Kiya

Smenkhare
Tutankhamen
Tombs at Amarna
Houses at Amarna

Tombs:
Valley of the Kings,
Valley of the Queens
Theban Tombs,
Tombs at Abydos
Tombs at El Kab
Tombs in Aswan
Early dynastic Saqqara
New Kingdom Saqqara
The Unis Cemetary

Mastabas at the Giza Plateau
Giza Mastabas 1000 cemetary
Giza Mastaba 2000 cemetary
Giza Mataba 2300 cemetary
Giza Mastaba 4000 cemetary
Giza Mastaba 5000 cemetary
Giza Mastaba 6000 cemetary
Giza Mastaba 7000 cemetary

Mummy Caches
Tomb DB320
Tomb KV35

Bint-Anath





Titles:
Hereditary Princess, the great first one (iryt-p`t-tpit-wrt)
Lady of The Two Lands (nbt-t3wy)
Great King’s Wife (hmt-niswt-wrt)
Mistress of Upper and Lower Egypt (hnwt-Shm’w -mhw)
King’s Daughter (s3t-niswt)
King’s Sister (snt-niswt)

Bint-Anath was the oldest daughter of Ramesses II by Queen Isetnofret. Her name is also given as Bent-Anta, Bint-Anta, or Bent-Anath.
Bint-Anath had at least three brothers: Princes Ramesses, Khaemwaset and Merenptah.
She was raised to the position of Great Royal wife sometime in the  early second decade of her father's reign. She seems to have shared some of her Queenly duties with her half-sister Meryetamun.
Bint-Anath may have survived into the reign of her brother Merneptah. There is a statue which gives her titles as Great royal wife and associates her with Merenptah. It's not clear if this statue was just simply usurped from Ramesses II or not. It is however also possible that this statue refers to the daughter of Bint-Anath, and who may have had the same name.


Bint-Anath was ultimately buried in the Valley of the Queens in Tomb 71. In the tomb a daughter of Bint-Anath is mentioned, but we are not told what her name is.

Titles and epithets used by Bint-Anath:

  • Lady of Both Lands
  • King’s Daughter, ( var: Beloved King’s Daughter, Bodily King’s Daughter)
  • Great Royal Wife
  • Mistress of the South and North
  • Hereditary Princess
  • greatly favored (var. great in favor(s) )
  • Chief of the Harim
  • King’s Wife

Many of the quotes below are taken directly from:
Kitchen, K.A., Rammeside Inscriptions, Translated & Annotated, Translations, Volume II, Blackwell Publishers, 1996
Sometimes part of the text was omitted and for any further information one should of course consult above mentioned publication.

 

 
Scene from Tomb 71 in the Valley of the Queens
Based on a line drawing by Lepsius. Abt. III, Band 6, Bl 172

Valley of the Queens Tomb 71

Lepius gives a short description of this tomb. In his list this is tomb number 4. The tomb of   .
In the back room on the left Bint-Anath appears before the god
The name of the Queen is written in slightly different ways:

(Thanks to Aset for creating these glyphs for me!)


Her titles include: King's Daughter (s3t-niswt), Great King's Wife (hmt-niswt-wrt), Lady of the Two Lands (nbt-t3wy) and Mistress of the Two Lands.
In a side chamber on the left the god Hor-An-Mutef appears dressed as a royal prince.
See Univ. of Halle site for the original works by Lepsius:
http://edoc3.bibliothek.uni-halle.de/books/2003/lepsius/page/tb3/image/00003227.jpg

a. Princess before Osiris and Nephtys

Princess:
Osiris, Lady of Both Lands, Bint-Anath, justified
Osiris:
"He who awakes well', the great god, Lord of Heaven, Ruler of the Conclave of Gods: "I grant you a place of repose in the land of righteousness."
Princess:
Osiris, King's Daughter Bint-Anath, justified
Nephtys:
Nephtys, lady of heaven, Mistress of the Two Lands: "I grant you a place [...]."
B. Variant Titles of Princess
Osiris, Great Royal Wife, Lady of Both Lands, Mistress of the South and North, Bint-Anath

Osiris, King's Daughter, Great Royal Wife, Lady of Both Lands, Bint-Anath



Queen Bintanath and her daughter. After a line drawing
in "Chronicle of the Queens of Egypt" by Joyce Tyldesley.

C. Queen and Daughter.
Queen:
Osiris, Great Royal Wife, Lady of Both Lands, Mistress of the South and North, Bint-Anath
Daughter:
Bodily King's Daughter <name omitted> [ Kitchen]

Inner sarcophagus (Cairo Museum JdE 47370)
Lid, center-line :
Words spoken by the Osiris, King's Daughter Bint-Anath, He (sic) days: "Descend, O my mother Nut, spread yourself over me, and may I be place amidst the Imperishable Stars; not shall die ,the Osiris etc.>
Round Foot:
The Osiris, Hereditary Princess, greatly favored, Chief of the Harim, King's Daughter Bint-Anath
On Side:
The Osiris, King's Wife, King's Daughter, Bint-Anath
<Sarcophagus usurped from a man>
[ Kitchen]

Relief fragment from Ahnas:  [... Bint-] Anath [ Kitchen]

Oil-stamp Seal, Qurna: Vegetable-oil of/for the Estate of Bint-Anath. [ Kitchen]


Bintanath stands behind prince Simontu

Luxor Pylon II, Scenes below year 3 text
Bodily King's Daughter Bint-Anath is the first princess in a procession of princesses.

Meryetamun
is the second princess, and the rest of the princesses are lost. [ Kitchen]



Stela depicting the royal family; Bint-Anath behind her mother Isetnofret and her father.
Painting based on linedrawing by Lepsius. The original can be found at Abt III, Band 7, Bl 174

W. Silsila Speos, Royal Family Stela by Prince Khaemwaset.
Prince, King, Queen and Princess-Queen before Ptah and Nefertem.

i. Deities:
Ptah-Tonen Nefertem, guardian of the Two Lands, life of the people.
ii. King:
Lord of Both Lands, Usermaatre Setepenre, Lord of Crowns, Ramesses II
iii. Prince:
King's Son, beloved of him, Khaemwaset.
iv. Queen:
Great Royal Wife Isetnofret
v. Princess-Queen:
Hereditary Princess, great in favor(s) (?), King's daughter and Great Royal Wife, Bint-Anath, may she live.
vi. Text:
<text omitted>
vii. Two princes:

His elder brother, the Hereditary Prince, Royal Scribe, Generalissimo, and bodily Senior King's Son, Ramesses.

His younger brother, the Royal Scribe, skilled of fingers, bodily King's Son, Merenptah.
[ Kitchen]

Sinai, Statue (BM 697)
Princess on left side:
King's Daughter and Great Royal Wife, Bint-Anath, may she live forever.
The statue has inscribed text on base, front of Kilt, standard and dorsal pillar.
[ Kitchen]

Piramesse, Found in Tanis:
Red sandstone Colossus
with Bint-Anath:
King's Daughter and Great Royal Wife, Bint-Anath, may she live

Sandstone Colossus with Bint-Anath and Meryetamen

[King's Daughter,] Royal Wife, Bint-Anath, may she live
Beloved King's Daughter, Royal Wife, Meryetamen, may she live
[ Kitchen]

Red Granite Colossus, S. Gate of Ptah Precinct (Memphis)
Statue of Ramesses II with Prince Khaemwaset and Princess-Queen Bint-Anath.
<some text omitted>
Prince:
King's Son and Sem-Priest, Prophet of the Temple of Ramesses II in the domain of Ptah, Khaemwaset.
Princess-Queen:
King's Daughter and King's Wife, Bint-Anath [ Kitchen]


El-Kab; Temple of Ramesses II:
A depiction of an Iunmutef priest and the Princesses Bint-Anath and Meryetamen. Scene includes cartouches and the princesses carry wands. [PM]
Bintanat is termed "king's daughter" as well as "king's wife", while no titles are given for Merytamun . Both Merytamen and Bint-Anath have a modius without stalks, shakes a sistrum, and carries a gazelle-headed wand. They face Iunmutef ("pillar of his mither"), a solar deity often associated with the crown prince.  From: Representation in a small temple at El-Kab. (A. Wilkinson : 117)  By Christiane Lilyquist  The Metropolitan Museum of Art. (Courtesy Rozette)

Heracleopolis
Usurped Middle Kingdom Statue with Bint-Anath and Meryetamen depicted on the base of the statue.
<some text omitted>
right:
King's Daughter, Royal Wife, Bint-Anath, may she live and grow young!
left:
King's Daughter, Royal Wife, Meryetamen, may she live! [ Kitchen]

Hermopolis: Limestone Colossus from the temple of Ramesses II,
West Statue of Ramesses II and the Queens Bint-Anath and Henutmire.

<some text omitted>

throne, front, right:
The Hereditary Princess, richly favored, Mistress of the South and North, King's Daughter, Great Royal Wife, Bint-Anath, given [life].
throne, front, left:
The Hereditary Princess, richly favored, Mistress of the South and North, King's Daughter, Great Royal Wife, Henut[mi]re, [given life]. [ Kitchen]

  

Bint-Anath standing before Ramesses II.
The statue was later usurped by Pinudjem I.
(Photo on the left: courtesy of Kevin Roxborough)

Karnak, Temple of Amun:
Pylon II, Statuary , South Colossus of Ramesses II before Vestibule.

Princess/Queen:
King's Daughter, King's Wife, Bint-Anath, may she live forever. [ Kitchen]

 


Head of Bint-Anath
Photo by Sesen
Luxor Temple
Statuary: In Forecourt, East Colonnade, Northern Statue
Queen:
Princess and Queen, Bint-Anath, may she live
West Colonnade, North Central Statue.

Queen:
Princess and Queen, Bint-Anath, may she live [ Kitchen]
[Most of the other statues are accompanied by Queen Nefertari, and one is accompanied by Queen Meryetamen.]


Bint-Anath depicted next to the leg of Ramesses II, Alain Guilleux

Wadi es-Sebua, Nubia

Rock temple,Temple Proper, South Colossus of Ramesses II at Pylon Entrance of Inner Forecourt.
Princess, left: Bodily King's Daughter, Great Royal Wife, Bint-Anath, may she live! [ Kitchen]
[The statue has inscriptions on standard and dorsal pillar.]


Daughter of Ramesses II from Wadi-es-Sebua
This could be either Bint-Anath or Meryetamen.
From Nubian Museum - Alain Guilleux

Abu Simbel, Nubia: Great Temple
Facade Southernmost Colossus.

Statues of Bodily King's Daughter Nebt-tawy and King's Daughter Bint-Anath.

Great Pillared Hall: Pillar III (South Side)

Bint-Anath offers flowers to Anuqet

Bodily King's Daughter, his beloved, and King's Wife, Bint-Anath, given life like Re
[ Kitchen]


Painting of Aswan Rockstela
Based on Lepsius, Abt III, Band 7, Bl. 175
Aswan Rockstela
A. Upper Register: King, Isetnofret and Khaemwaset before Khnum.
i. Khnum:
Khnum, Lord of the Cataract.
ii. King:
Lord of Both Lands, Usermaatre Setepenre, Lord of Crowns, Ramesses II
iii. Queen:
Queen Isetnofret
iv. Prince:
King's Son, Iunmutef, Sem-Priest, Khaemwaset [ Kitchen]

B. Lower register: Princes Ramesses, Merneptah and Princess Queen Bint-Anath.
v. Prince Ramesses:
His elder brother, the Hereditary Prince, Royal Scribe, Generalissimo, King's Son, Ramesses.
vi. Princess-Queen:
His elder sister, King's Daughter and Great Royal Wife, Bint-Anath.
vii. Prince Merenptah:
His younger brother, the King's Son Merenptah. [ Kitchen]

Statue depicting Queen Bintanath in Luxor 
This statue from Luxor depicts the "King's Daughter, King's Sister(?), Great Royal Wife Bintanath".
This statue has been alternately used to argue that Bint-Anath survived into the reign of Merenptah or that Bint-Anath's daughter (shown in Bint-Anath's tomb) was also named Bint-Anath and married her uncle-brother Merenptah.
   

 The statue of Merenptah (from Luxor) showing King's Daughter, King's Sister, Great Royal Wife Bintanath on the side. On the right a close-up of the titles and names of the Queen. (Photos courtesy of Sesen).
(Click on any of the images to see an enlarged picture).





Last edited: November 2007















Comments: email barta@slu.edu