Ancient Egypt


Page by Anneke Bart


Kings and Queens

4th dynasty
Seneferu, Khufu, Khafre, Menkaure, Djedefre, etc.

11th dynasty
Kings named Mentuhotep and Intef

12th dynasty
Amenemhet I - IV,
Senusret I-III

18th dynasty
Amenhotep I-IV,
Tuthmosis I-IV, Akhenaten, Tutankhamen, Aye, Horemheb, etc.

19th dynasty
Sety I-II, Ramesses I-II, Merenptah, Amenmesses, Tawosret.

20th dynasty

Sethnakht, Ramesses III
Ramesses IV - XI

25th dynasty
Alara, Kashta, Piye,
Shabaka, Shabataka,
Taharqa, Tanutamun, etc.

Cleopatra VII Philopator

Queens (D1-6)- Old Kingdom
Queens (D11-13) Middle Kingd.
Queens (D16-20)- New Kingdom
Queens (D21-29)- Late Period


Officials, Priesthood etc.
Viziers (New Kingdom)
High Priests of Amun
God's Wives of Amun
High Priests of Ptah
Viceroys of Nubia
Who's who of New Kingdom

Amarna Period
Queen Nefertiti
inscriptions Queen Nefertiti.
Queen Kiya

Tombs at Amarna
Houses at Amarna

Valley of the Kings,
Valley of the Queens
Theban Tombs,
Tombs at Abydos
Tombs at El Kab
Tombs in Aswan
Early dynastic Saqqara
New Kingdom Saqqara
The Unis Cemetary

Mastabas at the Giza Plateau
Giza Mastabas 1000 cemetary
Giza Mastaba 2000 cemetary
Giza Mataba 2300 cemetary
Giza Mastaba 4000 cemetary
Giza Mastaba 5000 cemetary
Giza Mastaba 6000 cemetary
Giza Mastaba 7000 cemetary

Mummy Caches
Tomb DB320
Tomb KV35


Queen Ankhesenamen

Queen Ankhesenamen presents lotus flowers to Tutankhamen.
From an ivory box from Tutankhamen's tomb.

Titles: Hereditary Princess (iryt-p`t), Great of Praises (wrt-hzwt), Sweet of Love (bnrt-mrwt), Sweet of Love (ndjmt-mrwt)
Lady of  Grace (nbt-im3t), Lady of  Love (nbt-mrwt), Lady of The Two Lands (nbt-t3wy), Great King’s Wife (hmt-niswt-wrt), King’s Wife, his beloved (hmt-nisw meryt.f), Mistress of Upper and Lower Egypt (hnwt-Shm’w -mhw).

Full title on some Amarna monuments:
King’s Daughter of his body, his beloved Ankhes-en-pa-aten, born of the great royal wife, his beloved, Lady of the Two Lands (Neferneferuaten)| may she live (s3t-niswt-nt-kht.f-meryt.f-anx-s-n-p3-itn-ms-n-hmt-niswt-wrt-meryt.f-nbt-t3wy-(itn-nfr-u-nfr-tyit)| anx-s)

Early years as Princess Ankhesenpaaten at the court at Amarna

Ankhesenamen was born Ankhesenpaaten. She was the third daughter of Akhenaten and Nefertiti. She appears on the monuments in Amarna roughly after year 5 or 6 of the reign of Akhenaten. She is depicted in several of the tombs in Amarna and appears in other inscriptions and sculptures. Later married King Tutankhamen.


Left: Princess Ankhesenpaaten stands on her mother's lap. From a stela.
Right: Princess Ankhesenpaaten stands behind her two sisters, Meritaten and Meketaten.
They shake a sistrum as their parents, Akhenaten and Nefertiti, dedicate votive items to the Aten.

Ankhesenpaaten stands behind her sisters Meritaten and Meketaten,
 while their parents hand rewards to the priest Parennefer.
Ankhesenpaaten is followed by a royal nurse and her aunt the Princes Mutnodjemet.

The tribute from year 12 depicted in Huya's tomb.
Ankhesenpaaten is the left-most princes at the top. She is shown affectionately caressing her sister's face.

Sculptures of Amarna Princesses. These princesses are not identified and
could represent Meritaten, Ankhesenpaaten or one of the other royal princesses.

Ankhesenamen as Queen.

Tutankhamen came to the throne at a very young age. He must have been 7 or 8 years old. It is not known how old Ankhesenpaaten was when she became Queen of Egypt. It is usually thought that she must have been several years older than her husband.
After approximately 3 years on the throne the royal couple changed their names from Tutankhaten and Ankhesenpaaten to Tutankhamen and Ankhesenamen. The name change seems to have been accompanied by a move to the north. Akhetaten was abandoned and the royal couple moved back to their palaces in Thebes and Memphis.


Statues in Karnak and Luxor with the facial features of Tutankhamen and Ankhesenamen.
On the left: Amun and Amunet in Karnak.
On the right: A dyad from Luxor.

Ankhesenamen is known to have been depicted on several monuments near Memphis. In the temple tomb built by Horemheb before he became pharaoh we see Ankhesenamen behind Tutankhamen. Sadly enough the top of the scene has been lost, but it appears that the royal couple is bestowing rewards on courtiers.
Evidence of Tutankhamen and Ankhesenamen was also found at Dashur, This necropolis is slightly south of Saqqara and tombs from the time of Tutakhamen were found. Some of the finds include signet rigns inscribed with the name of Ankhesenamen.

Ankhesenamen stands behind Tutankhamen in the tomb of Horemheb in Saqqara.

Images of Ankhesenamen from the tomb of her husband Pharaoh Tutankhamen.

When the tomb of Tutankhamen was discovered by Howard Carter, several items showed the image of Tutankhamen's Queen. One of the most famous object is the golden throne which shows Ankhesenamen standing before her husband. She is apparently annointing the king. Ankhesenamen is shown wearing a short Nubian wig and her regalia consist of a modius consisting of uraei topped with the horned sundisk and the double plumes. The sundisk and plumes associate her with the goddess Hathor.


Ankhesenamen annointing Tutankhamen. Scene from the famous throne found in KV62.
Close-up of Queen Ankhesenamen and King Tutankhamen.
A better photograph of the throne can be found at Richard Seaman's website  

Another object showing Ankhesenamen with her husband is a beatiful golden shrine. The shrine was found empty, but probably conatined a small statue in antiquity. The outside of the shrine is decorated with many different scenes showing Ankhesenamen and Tutankhamen. In several of the scenes Ankkhesenamen is shown with a short wig. Sometimes combined with a side-lock. She is shown offering lotus flowers and other objects to Tutankhamen. In one sceen she stands behind the king in a papyrus skiff while hunting ducks in the marsh. Ankhesenamen is depicted with a fly-whisk.


Images from the shrine from Tutankhamen's tomb.

In Tutankhamen's tomb there were also two mummies of small babies. It' is possible that these two children were still-born children of Tutankhamen and Ankhesenamen. Ankhesenamen may have been the mother of a small girl seen in Amarna named Ankhesenpaaten-tasherit. It's also possible however that this girl was a daughter of Kiya, or even of some other lady. No surviving children of Ankhesenamen are known however.


On the left: the mummies of the babies from Tutankhamen's tomb.
On the right: One of the miniature mummy masks.

After Tutankhamen

After the death of Tutankhamen a queen referred to as Dahamunzu writes to King Suppiluliumas and asks him to send her a son.
Records were found in the Hittite archive outlining this strange string of events. After the death of King Tutankhamen, Queen Ankhesenamen wrote to the King of the Hittites and asked him to send her one of his sons. She promises to marry the Prince and make him King of Egypt. She claims to be afraid and declares that she will not marry any of her 'servants'. King Suppiluliuma suspects some trick and sends one of his envoys to investigate. After some time the King decides to send his son, Prince Zannanza, to Egypt. The prince dies and the King expects foul play. The last letters in the exchange show a correspondence between Aye and Suppiluliuma. This shows that all of Ankhesenamen's machinations have come to naught.

Ring linking the names of Ankhesenamen and Pharaoh Aye.
There is some indication that Ankhesenamen married Aye, but she disappears from history soon after that. It is not known where she was buried, and no funerary objects with her name are known to exist. This leaves the possibility that her tomb is still somewhere out there, waiting to be discovered.

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