Ancient Egypt

         

Page by Anneke Bart




 

Kings and Queens

4th dynasty
Seneferu, Khufu, Khafre, Menkaure, Djedefre, etc.

11th dynasty
Kings named Mentuhotep and Intef

12th dynasty
Amenemhet I - IV,
Senusret I-III


18th dynasty
Amenhotep I-IV,
Tuthmosis I-IV, Akhenaten, Tutankhamen, Aye, Horemheb, etc.


19th dynasty
Sety I-II, Ramesses I-II, Merenptah, Amenmesses, Tawosret.

20th dynasty

Sethnakht, Ramesses III
Ramesses IV - XI

25th dynasty
Alara, Kashta, Piye,
Shabaka, Shabataka,
Taharqa, Tanutamun, etc.



Cleopatra VII Philopator

Queens (D1-6)- Old Kingdom
Queens (D11-13) Middle Kingd.
Queens (D16-20)- New Kingdom
Queens (D21-29)- Late Period



 

Officials, Priesthood etc.
Viziers (New Kingdom)
High Priests of Amun
God's Wives of Amun
High Priests of Ptah
Viceroys of Nubia
Who's who of New Kingdom


Amarna Period
Akhenaten
Queen Nefertiti
inscriptions Queen Nefertiti.
Queen Kiya

Smenkhare
Tutankhamen
Tombs at Amarna
Houses at Amarna

 
Tombs:
Valley of the Kings,
Valley of the Queens
Theban Tombs,
Tombs at Abydos
Tombs at El Kab
Tombs in Aswan
Early dynastic Saqqara
New Kingdom Saqqara
The Unis Cemetary

 
Mastabas at the Giza Plateau
Giza Mastabas 1000 cemetary
Giza Mastaba 2000 cemetary
Giza Mataba 2300 cemetary
Giza Mastaba 4000 cemetary
Giza Mastaba 5000 cemetary
Giza Mastaba 6000 cemetary
Giza Mastaba 7000 cemetary
 

Mummy Caches
Tomb DB320
Tomb KV35



Links



Amenemhat (II) Nubkaure

  

(Image from Metmuseum)
Ca. 1914-1879/76 BC

Horus name: Hekenmaat
Nebty name: Hekenmaat
Golden Falcon name: Maakheru
Prenomen: Nubkawre
Nomen: Amenemhat

Burial place: Pyramid at Dahshur

Parents:  Senwosret I and Neferu III

Wives:
 

  • Senet: Likely a wife of Amenemhat II and the mother of  Senwosret II. Known from statues in the Delta.
    Titles: Hereditary Princess (iryt-p`t), King’s Mother (mwt-niswt), King’s Wife (hmt-nisw).
  • KeminubBuried in tomb in her husband’s funerary complex in Dashur.
    Titles: King’s Wife (hmt-nisw).
  • Kanefru? Probably a wife of Amenemhat. Mentioned on a seal with Amenemhat. Had the title Mistress of all women.

Sons:  
  • Amenemhat-ankh? probably a son of Amenemhat.
  • Senusret II, son and heir to the throne.

Daughters: 

  • Ita King's daughter. Owner of a Sphinx in Syria. Buried in double tomb with her sister Khnemet.
  • Itakayet B? Probably a daughter of Amenemhat II. It is also possible she was his grand-daughter.
  • Itaweret Daughter of Amenemhat II and probably wife of her brother Senusret II. Buried in a double tomb wit Sithathormeryet in their father's pyramid complex.
  • Khnemet Daughter of Amenemhat II and probably wife of her brother Senusret II. Buried in a double tomb wit Ita in their father's pyramid complex.
  • Neferet II Daughter of Amenemhat II and wife of her brother Senusret II. Known from two statues and possible owner of a small pyramid in the funerary complex of Senusert II.
  • Khnemetneferhedjet Daughter of Amenemhat II, and possibly identical with Khnemetneferhedjet I Weret, a wife of Senusret II.
  • Sithathormeryet A female relative of Amenemhat II (possibly his daughter?). Buried in a double tomb with Itaweret in their father's pyramid complex.



Sphinx depicting Amenemhat II (Louvre)


Building program:

Dashur: Amenemhet II built the "White Pyramid" to the east of Sneferu's pyramids in central Dashur. The mortuary temple was almost completely destroyed. Its ruins are located in front of the pyramid's east wall. The Valley Temple has not been found. The mortuary temple and the pyramid were enclosed by a large wall. Within this enclosure the tomb of Prince Amenemhat-ankh was found, as well as the tombs of the princesses Ita, Khnemet, Itaweret, and Sithathormeryet. These tombs still contained some tomb furnishings. The most spectacular discovery was however the jewelry from the double tomb of Ita and Khnemet.
The pyramid was named "Amenu-kherep" (Ymnw-khrp
) according to inscriptions left by Sihathor. Sihathor was ordered to the pyramid to oversee the work on 16 statues.

El-Ashmunein (Hermopolis): Remains of a temple facade and entrance passage to a temple from the time of Amenemhat II survive.

Sinai (Serabit el-Khadim): A statue fragment depicting Amenemhat II was found in the Sinai. The Global Egyptian Museum mentions:
"Lower part of a roughly sculpted figure of a king seated on a block throne, with hieroglyphic inscription on the (figure's) left side of the throne identifying him as 'the son of Re Amenemhat, beloved of Hathor lady of turquoise(-land)', and on the right side as '... Nubkaura, beloved of Hathor lady of turquoise(-land)'. Nubkaura is the throne name of Amenemhat II, and this is the only surviving statue inscribed with that king's name. The figure is now much eroded, and the feet as well as the torso and head are missing, but the right lower arm appears to have lain flat on the lap. The figure was found by Flinders Petrie at the shrine of Hathor on the Sinai plateau at Sarabit el-Khadim." (GEM) (Image - more can be found on the GEM website)


Sinai Inscription (from GEM):
Son of Re Amenemhat beloved of Hathor lady of turquoise(-land).
... Hathor ... Nubkaura beloved of Hathor lady of turquoise(-land).


Reign of Amenemhat II

Amenemhat II is known to have been co-regent with his father Senusert I for at least 3 years.

Expeditions to the Sinai and Nubia are recorded by several of his courtiers. In year 24 a new mine is opened in the Sinai as recorded by the captain of Sailors, named Men.

The nobleman Khentkhetwer mentions an expedition to the land of Punt in year 28.

In year 35 of Amenemhat II / year 3 of Senusret II the officer Hapu records an inspection of the fortresses in Wawat (Nubia).

 


Government
Ameni, Vizier.
Djehutyhotep,  Nomarch of the Hare Nome. He lived during the reigns of Amenemhat II (1922-1878 BC), Senwosret II (1880-1874 BC) and Senwosret III (1874-1855 BC). The tomb of his physician Gua was also found (Info from British Museum). Djehutyhotep was the son of Key and Sat-kheper-ka (Teti?), and grand-son of Nehri (possibly the Vizier Nehri from an earlier period).
His wife was named Hathor-hotep, a Priestess of Hathor. Children include the sons Shemsu-khau-ef, Sesostris-ankh and Nehri. Daughters include Nub-unut, Sat-kheper-ka and Sat-hedj-hotep.


Djehutyhotep

His tomb in el-Berseh was described by Lepsius.
Colossus being pulled on a sled and other images Lepsius Abt II, Band 4, Bl 134
Images includeing the one above: Lepsius Abt II, Band 4, Bl 135

Kay, Sealer (Treasurer), Stela from Abydos (now in British Museum) – Yr 3.
Kheti, the eldest daughter of the Prince of the Jackal Nome. They had sons named Nakht (B) and Khnumhotep III.
Khnumhotep II, Son of the Vizier Nehri and Beket (daughter of Khnumhotep I). His tomb in Beni Hasan is described by Lepsius. The entry door is decribed in Lepsius Abt II, Band 4, Bl 123  The rest of the tomb inscriptions can be found at:
Inscriptions: Lepsius Abt II, Band 4, Bl 124,
Inscriptions Lepsius Abt II, Band 4, Bl 125,
Scenes showing boatbuilding, boats and other industry: Lepsius Abt II, Band 4, Bl 126,
People working the land and boats: Lepsius Abt II, Band 4, Bl 127,
Offerings and the depiction of a lady (wife?): Lepsius Abt II, Band 4, Bl 128,
Khnumhotep before an offering table: Lepsius Abt II, Band 4, Bl 129,
Fishing and hunticg duck in the marshes: Lepsius Abt II, Band 4, Bl 130,
Foreigners paying tribute?: Lepsius Abt II, Band 4, Bl 131,
Rounding up fowl and cattle: Lepsius Abt II, Band 4, Bl 131,
Color scenes depicting some of the foreigners: Lepsius Abt II, Band 4, Bl 133


Scene from the tomb of Khnumhotep,
Lepsius Abt II, Band 4, Bl 129

<>Sarenput II, also called Nub-kau-ra-nakht, (#31 Aswan) Chancellor of lower Egypt, Overseer of the prophets of Khnum, etc. Mother: Hetepet, Son: Ankhu;  Sarenput II was a grand-son of Sarenput I.
Senusret, Vizier (Senusret I - Amenemhat II). Stela dated to year 8 from Abydos is now in the Louvre.
<>Si-Hathor,  Assistant Treasurer. Stela from Abydos (now in British Museum). Sihathor left records of expeditions to Nubia and the Sinai. He records the trip to Sinai as having taken place during his youth.
Wepwaweta-a, Nomarch of the Thinite Nome (Which has Abydos as it’s Capital)  From a Stela at Abydos. The text mentions both Sesostris I and Amenemhet II. Some titles: Hereditary Prince, Count, Sealbearer of the King, Sole Companion, Priest of Maat, High Priest of Osiris, Overseer of the Priests.



A beautiful colored image of Khnumhotep's tomb in Beni Hasan.
For a better quality image, please see Lepsius Abt II, Band 4, Bl 130

Palace Officials
Khent-em-semeti: real favorite servant, master of the secret things of the King's Wardrobe. Khent-em-sementi leaves a record at Abydos of a journey of inspection among the temples of Egypt. He apparently visited Elephantine and then returned to Abydos. Khent-em-sementi lists several honors on his stela. He mentions being priest of the Southern Crown, (of) the Northern Crown, (of) Khnum, servant of the royal toilet, adjusting (the crown called) "Great-in-Magic", supporting the White Crown in the "Great House" (pr-wr), etc.
Khent-khetwer, Hereditary prince, count, wearer of the royal seal, the master of the judgement hall. Records arriving safely from Punt in year 28.
Men, born of Mut: the real king's confidant, the captain of sailors. Records the opening of a new mine in the Sinai in year 24.
Simontu,  Hereditary Prince, Count, Wearer of the Royal Seal, Royal Scribe, etc.


Priesthood
Hetep-Khuy, The Master of the Secrets of the Seal of the Divine Offering, Scribe of the God; From a Stela from Abydos (in Leiden). Also mentioned on the stela are: his wife Hapy – daughter of Aye, his brother Sobek-hotep, his sister Satwosret, his mother Du, his son Ameny, and his nephew also named Ameny (son of Sobekhotep)
Khu, “Overseer of the Tomb”, from a Stela at Abydos (in Leiden). Shown with his wife Senet, his brother Montuwesi, and his mother who is also named Senet.
Wepwaweta-a, Nomarch of the Thinite Nome (Which has Abydos as it’s Capital)  From a Stela at Abydos. The text mentions both Sesostris I and Amenemhet II. Some titles: Hereditary Prince, Count, Sealbearer of the King, Sole Companion, Priest of Maat, High Priest of Osiris, Overseer of the Priests.




Bibliography / Suggested Reading

  1. Breasted, J.H., Ancient Records of Egypt, Vol I, The First through the Seventeenth Dynasties, 2001 (originally appeared in 1906)
  2. Dodson, A., Hilton, D., The Complete Royal Families of Ancient Egypt, Thames & Hudson, 2004.
  3. Wilkinson R.H., The Complete Temples of Ancient Egypt, Thames & Hudson, 2000.
  4. http://www.digitalegypt.ucl.ac.uk/chronology/amenemhatII.html











Comments: email barta@slu.edu