Ancient Egypt

         

Page by Anneke Bart





Kings and Queens

4th dynasty
Seneferu, Khufu, Khafre, Menkaure, Djedefre, etc.

11th dynasty
Kings named Mentuhotep and Intef

12th dynasty
Amenemhet I - IV,
Senusret I-III


18th dynasty
Amenhotep I-IV,
Tuthmosis I-IV, Akhenaten, Tutankhamen, Aye, Horemheb, etc.


19th dynasty
Sety I-II, Ramesses I-II, Merenptah, Amenmesses, Tawosret.

20th dynasty

Sethnakht, Ramesses III
Ramesses IV - XI




Cleopatra VII Philopator

Queens (D1-6)- Old Kingdom
Queens (D11-13) Middle Kingd.
Queens (D16-20)- New Kingdom
Queens (D21-29)- Late Period




Officials, Priesthood etc.
Viziers (New Kingdom)
High Priests of Amun
God's Wives of Amun
High Priests of Ptah
Viceroys of Nubia
Who's who of New Kingdom


Amarna Period
Akhenaten
Queen Nefertiti
inscriptions Queen Nefertiti.
Queen Kiya

Smenkhare
Tutankhamen
Tombs at Amarna
Houses at Amarna

Tombs:
Valley of the Kings,
Valley of the Queens
Theban Tombs,
Tombs at Abydos
Tombs at El Kab
Tombs in Aswan
Early dynastic Saqqara
New Kingdom Saqqara
The Unis Cemetary

Mastabas at the Giza Plateau
Giza Mastabas 1000 cemetary
Giza Mastaba 2000 cemetary
Giza Mataba 2300 cemetary
Giza Mastaba 4000 cemetary
Giza Mastaba 5000 cemetary
Giza Mastaba 6000 cemetary
Giza Mastaba 7000 cemetary

Mummy Caches
Tomb DB320
Tomb KV35



Ramesses III (Usermaetre-Meryamun)   


(ca. 1185 – 1153 B.C.)

Horus name: Kanakht Aanesyt
Nebty name: Werhebusedmitatjenen
Golden Falcon name: Userrenputmiatum
Prenomen: Usermaatre-meryamun
Nomen: Ramesses Heqaiunu

Tomb: KV 11



User-maat-re mery Amun (= Re is powerful in truth, beloved of Amun).
Ramesses, Ruler of Heliopolis.


Ramesses III was the son of Pharaoh Setnakhte (Userkhaure) and Queen Tiye-Merenesse


Ostracon showing Ramesses smiting the enemy.





Ramesses III is known to have had at least two wives:

  • Isis or Isis-Ta-hemseret: Wife of Ramesses III and mother of Ramesses IV and Ramesses VI
    Titles: Great King’s Wife, his beloved (hmt-niswt-wrt meryt.f), Lady of The Two Lands (nbt-t3wy), King’s Mother (mwt-niswt), God’s Wife (hmt-ntr)
  • Tiye: This wife of Ramses III was involved in a harem plot to assassinate him and place her son on the throne. The plot was discovered and the Queen and other members of the harem were tried in a royal court. Nothing is known of her fate. Titles: King’s Wife (hmt-nisw)?


Left: Queen Isis (ta hemseret) as depicted on a statue of Ramesses III
From Lepsius Abt III, Bande 7, bl 207
Right: Queen Isis as depicted in the Valley of the Queens.


 

Unnamed Queen depicted in a tomb in the Valley of the Queens.
Tomb of Prehirwenemef? (He is also depicted in the tomb Image on the right). See Lepsius Abt III, BAnd 7, Bl. 217

Ramesses III admired Ramesses II and one way in which this manifests itself is the naming of his sons, which (somewhat) parallels the naming of the earlier royal sons:
1. Ramesses , Generalissimo. Son of Ramses and Isis ta-Hemdjert. Ruled as Ramses IV
2. Pentaweret, son of Ramses III and Queen Tiye. Implicated in the harem conspiracy, convicted and as punishment he took his own life.
3. (Ramses-) Amenhikopshef I Eldest King’s Son, Executive at the head of the Two Lands
4. Sethirkopshef King’s Son, Master of the Horse(?) Later became pharaoh as Ramses VIII.
5. Prehirwenemef First King’s Son, Great Charioteer
6. Mentuhirkhopshef  King’s Son of his Body. Possibly the father of King Ramses IX.
7. (Ramesses-) Meryatum King’s Son of his Body, High Priest of Re at Heliopolis
8. Khaemweset First King’s Son, Sem Priest of Ptah at Memphis
9. Amenhikopshef II ruled as Ramses VI, King’s Son, Master of the Horse.
10. (Ramesses-) Meryamun King’s Son of his Body.

 The order of the princes is taken from Susan Redford’s book. She argues that sons 1,3,9, and 10 are sons of Queen Isis Ta-Hemdjert, and the other 6 are sons of Queen Tiye.
But according to Lepsius' drawings, Queen Isis appears in Prehirwenemef's tomb, which seems to indicate she is his mother.


The princes depicted at Medinet Habu (see also below under Medinet Habu).

Daughters:
(Dua)Tentopet: Wife of Ramses IV and mother of Ramses V.
Titles: King’s Mother (mwt-niswt), Lady of The Two Lands (nbt-t3wy), Great King’s Wife (hmt-niswt-wrt), King’s Daughter (s3t-niswt), Adoratrice of the God (duat-ntr)


Tombs in the Valley of the Queens:
QV41 - unfinished tomb (20th Dynasty)
This tomb is architecturally contemporary to the tombs from the time of Ramesses III.


QV42 - Prince Prehirwenemef
, First King's Son, Charioteer of the stable of the Great House, (20th Dynasty)
Son of Ramesses III. Predeceased his father. S. Redford suggests that Prehirwenemef may be a son of Ramesses III and Queen Tiye, the Queen implicated in the plot against her husband

QV43 - Prince Set-hirkhopshef,
King's son, Hereditary prince of the royal children of his Majesty, Charioteer of the Great Stable. (20th Dynasty)
Son of Ramesses III. S. Redford suggests that Set-hirkhopshef may be the son of Ramesses III and Queen Tiye, the Queen implicated in the plot against her husband.
This tomb was never used. He survived his (half ? -)brothers and his nephew, and took the throne as Ramesses VIII.
Reused as a family burial place in the Third Intermediate Period.
http://members.tripod.com/~ib205/vq43.html


QV 44 - Prince Khaemweset, First King's Son, Sem-priest of Ptah. (20th Dynasty)
Son of Ramesses III. S. Redford suggests that Khaemwese may be the son of Ramesses III and Queen Tiye, the Queen implicated in the plot against her husband.
The tomb was discovered by Schiaparelli. Khaemweset's possible mummy and his sarcophagus lid are now in the Turin Museum.
Reused as a family burial place in the Third Intermediate Period.
http://members.tripod.com/~ib205/vq44.html



QV45 - unfinished tomb (20th Dynasty)
This tomb is architecturally contemporary to the tombs from the time of Ramesses III.

QV 51 - Queen Isis (Ta-hemdjeret), King's Great Wife, King's Mother, God's Wife.
Wife of Ramesses III,  mother of Ramesses VI and Ramesses VI (20th Dynasty)
She was the daughter of a Lady called Hemdjeret. She lived on into the reign of her son Ramesses VI.
http://members.tripod.com/~ib205/vq51.html

QV53 - Prince Ramesses  King's Son, Generalissimo (20th Dynasty).
Son of Ramesses III and Isis Ta-Hemdjeret.
This tomb was not used because Ramesses took the throne as Ramesses IV.


QV54
- unfinished tomb (20th Dynasty)

QV55 - Prince Amenhirkhopshef , Eldest King's Son, Royal Scribe, Overseer of Horses, (20th Dynasty).


Amenhirkhopshef lead by his father. The image is artifically colored, hence the real colors may be slightly different.


Son of Ramesses III.  His name is also written as Ramesses-Amenhirkhopshef. Apparently died young as heir presumptive. Susan Redford suggests that Amenhirkhopshef is a son of Ramesses III and Queen Isis Ta-Hemdjeret.  http://members.tripod.com/~ib205/vq55.html

 

Amenhirkhepeshef accompanied by his father Ramesses III (photo on the right by yuti






Temple at Medinet Habu
(Photos courtesy of Jon Bodsworth; Some of the text is based on the information given at http://www.egyptarchive.co.uk/ )



The first pylon of Rameses III's Temple at Medinet Habu  is 24 metres high and 67 metres wide.
The gateway on the right shows some of the original colors of this temple complex.


   

On the left we see the main entrance to the Temple's enclosure. This tower is sometimes referred to as a 'migdol'.
On the right we see Ramesses III smighting his enemies before Amun.
Below the smiting scene we see a list of captured cities.


 

On the left we see another smiting scene.
On the right we see Rameses III being presented with the severed hands of captives taken during a Libyan war.


   

On the left we see the First Court of the temple with the Second Pylon.
On the right we see Ramesses is shown taking part in the Feast of Min-Kamutef.
This scene is an almost exact copy of a scene from the Ramesseum. The Queen performing a ritual dance in not named in this scene (the cartouche is left blank). In the original scene this role was performed by Queen Nefertari.


             

Original color on the columns in the Second Court.

Lepsius recorded several scenes from Medinet Habu:
The temple and first pylon: Abt III, Band 7, Bl 209
Smiting scene at first pylon: Abt III, Band 7, Bl 210
The King presenting prisoners before Amun and Mut: Abt III, Band 7, Bl 211
The King before Amun-Min: Abt III, Band 7, Bl 212



Ramesses III offering before Amen-Min-Kamutef.
This scene is almost an exact copy of a similar scene depicting Ramesses II
Note that the Queen's cartouche is empty. In the original Nefertari was shown dancing.
See Lepsius Abt III, Band 7, Bl 212

The sons of Ramesses III are depicted at Medinet Habu. Top left we see Ramesses with his name in a cartouche, Prince Ramesses,  Ramesses also with his name in a cartouche, Prince Sethirkhepeshef, Prince Prehirwenemef, Prince Mentuhirkhepeshef, and Prince  Mery-Atum.
At the bottom we see: Prince Khaemwaset, Prince Amenhirkhepeshef, and Prince Mery-Amen on the left.
On the right the two figures are surrounded by the titles and names of the same 10 princes.



The sons of Ramesses III at Medinet Habu. Lepsius Abt III, Band 7, Bl. 214

  Ramesses III at Medinet Habu

In the first courtyard of the mortuary temple several osiride statues of Ramesses III stand on either side. The statues of Ramesses III are flanked by statues of princes and royal women. It is not clear who the women are depicted at the side of the King. They could represent either queens of princesses. No inscriptions identify the women (or the princes) The images below come from the Ancient Egypt website. See http://www.ancient-egypt.co.uk/index.htm for more images.

     


Additions to the temple at Karnak



The entrance of the temple of Ramesses III which opens off the right hand side of the Great Court.

 

On the left we see the courtyard of the temple of Ramesses III.
Each side of the Courtyard has a covered passage with eight square pillars fronted by Osiris figures.


On the right: a relief with original colour in the Sanctuary of the Khonsu Temple depicting Ramesses III.




Priesthood

Amenemopet High Priest of Mut at Karnak (TT148). Appointed by Prince Ramses C in year 27. Also priest of Amun. Amenemopet was the son of Thonufer abd Nefertari. His wife was the Chief of the harem of Amen, named Tamert.
Amenmose, Overseer of the treasury of Amun, Chief steward in the Western River, Overseer of works in the cult-temple of Ramesses III, etc., son of Pawia  and Nebtyunet [G.I.]
Amenemopet, Overseer of recruits of the temple of Amun, temp. Setnakht to Ramesses III [G.I.]
Bakenkhons(II): High Priest of Amun, temp Sethnakht to Ramesses III. Known from several monuments including a black granite statue at Boston Museum of Fine Arts. Son of Amenemopet.
Hekmaetre-Nakht called Turo, First prophet of Montu (TT222). His wife Wiay was Chief of the harem of Montu. Their son Userhet was Chief prophet of Monthu and their son Panebmonthu was First prophet of Monthu.Turo served under Ramses III and Ramses IV.
Khaemweset First King’s Son, Sem Priest of Ptah at Memphis
(Ramesses-) Meryatum King’s Son of his Body, High Priest of Re at Heliopolis
Setau, First Prophet of Nekhbet, tomb 4 in El-Kab. Father: Huy (shown offering to Re-Harakhti Atum). The Vizier To is mentioned with reference to a hebsed festival for Ramesses III in year 29. The Vizier Ramesesnakht was apparently a son-in-law of Setau.
Thonufer, Third prophet of Amun (TT158). His wife was the Chief of the harem of Amun named Nefertari. Their son was Amenemopet (see above).

Army


Rameses III being presented with the severed hands of captives taken during a Libyan war.

Djehutemhab, General of His Majesty, etc., and wife Iay, Songstress of Wepwaut. [G.I.]
Hori , Great general of the Lord of the Two Lands, etc., son of Bekamun [G.I.]
(Ramesses-) Mentuhirkhopshef C First King’s Son of his Body, Eldest King’s Son of his Body. First Generalissimo, Executive at the head of the Two Lands.
Ramesesnakht , Scribe of the marshalling of the army [G.I.]
Ramesses (C), Generalissimo. Son of Ramses and Isis ta-Hemdjert. Ruled as Ramses IV
Sethirkopshef King’s Son, Master of the Horse(?) Later became pharaoh as Ramses VIII.
Si[emniut](?)  First great charioteer of His Majesty of the great stable of Rameses[-hekayunu] (Ramesses III) [G.I.]

Government

Hori, Governor of the Town and Vizier, son of the High Priest of Ptah Hori, and hence a grand-son of Prince-Khaemwaset. [G.I.]
Herwernef, Vizier. He visits the Deir el-Medina working community in a regnal year 15, I peret 10, in order to have it explained to the crew that he had been appointed by and for the god Amun (appointment of a vizier by oracle is otherwise unattested). The vizier must a northern one, as his predecessor, the well-known vizier Hori, seems to have died in the same year. This Hewernef might well have been the anonymous northern vizier who is mentioned as having been ‘removed’ by Ramses III from a temple in Athribis (in Pap. Harris I) and who was succeeded by the vizier To in regnal year 29.
Ramesses-nakht: King's Son of Kush. Known from an inscription on a piece of jewelry. globalegyptian museum
To, Governor of the Town and Vizier,  [G.I.]


Court Officials

Amenemonet, fan-bearer Shown on a lintel (probably from his tomb) as a fan-bearer kneeling in adoration before cartouches of Ramesses II and III.  Cairo, Egyptian Museum, JE 29468. (Topological bibliography - Reliefs and Paintings by Malek)
Amunhotep
Steward of (Dua-)Tentopet (TT346) - possibly dates to a little later period (i.e.Ramesses IV)
Ptahmose, Royal scribe of memoranda of the Lord of the Two Lands, Chief steward [G.I.]
Ramessesemperre, Fanbearer on the right of the King, royal butler, etc., likely from the time of Ramesses III. Buried in Saqqara.
Tjayiri called User-khau-Re-nakht,   Great Overseer of the Harem in Memphis, A limestone statue of Tjayiry is on display in the Museum in Leiden. Served under Sethnakht and Ramesses III.

Other:

Benanta, Chief physician of the Mansion of Life. Known from lower part of (probably) a tomb jamb. Thought to have been buried in Saqqara. Cairo, Egyptian Museum, JE 40031 (Topological bibliography - Reliefs and Paintings by Malek)

Karo , Deputy of the transport official (ms•kb) [G.I.]





Scene depicting Ramesses III with several harem ladies.
This painting is (very) loosely based on a line drawing by Lepsius. The clothing is fictional.
See Lepsius Abt III, Band 7, Bl 208  for this scene and several other from Medinet Habu

The Harem Conspiracy

The Harem conspiracy is described in the Turin judicial papyrus.
A group of officials is given the commission to investigate the charges.
The investigators are:
The overseers of the White House (treasury), Mentemtowe and Pefroi
The standard-bearer, Kara,
The butlers, Pebes, Kedendenna, Maharbaal, Payernu, and Thutrekhnefer;
The king's-herald, Penrenut;
The scribe, Mai;
The scribe of the archives, Peremhab;
The standard-bearer of the infantry, Hori;
[He was placed before Kedendenna, Maharbaal, Pirsun, and Thutrekhnefer; they examined him; they found him guilty; they brought his punishment upon him.]
It seems that Pebes, Mai and Hori were later implicated in the conspiracy.

The guilty include:
From the Royal Harem and Court:
Pebekkamen, chief of the chamber and apparently the mastermind of the crime.
Eshehebsed, assistant of Pebekkamen.
Peynok, overseer of the royal harem,
Pendua, scribe of the royal harem
Pere, scribe of the royal harem
Mai, formerly scribe of the archives.
The butlers: Mesedsure, Weren, Peluka (also scribe of the treasury), the Libyan Yenini,
Nebzefai, Henutenamon, Pebes,
Inspectors of the Royal Harem: Petewenteamon, Kerpes, Khamopet, Khammale, Setimperthoth, Setimperamon
Wives (6) of the people of the harem-gate, who united with the men, when the things were discussed;
From the Treasury:
Pere, son of Ruma, overseer of the White House (treasury).
From the armed forces:
Binemwese, Captain of archers in Nubia. He was brought in because of the letter, which his sister, who was in the harem, [in the suite], had written to him, saying: "Incite the people to hostility! And come thou to begin hostility against thy lord."
Peyes, Commander of the army.
Teynakhte, Officer of infantry.
Oneney, Captain of police.


Related to Priesthood?:
Iroi, King’s Physician.
Perekamenef, Seems to have worked with Iroi using black magic.
Messui, Scribe of the house of sacred writings.
Shedmeszer, scribe of the house of sacred writings.

Some of the names are not the original names of the accused. Mesedsure for instance means “Re hates him”, while Bonemwese means “Wicked in Thebes”
 


Bibliography / Suggested Reading
1.Breasted, J.H. Ancient Records of Egypt, Vol3 Chicago 1906 (reprinted in 2001)
2. Dodson A. and Hilton D. The Complete Royal Families of Ancient Egypt, London 2004
3. Redford, S. The Harem Conspiracy: The Murder of Ramsesses III, Northern Illinois University Press 2002.
4. Topographical Bibliography of Ancient Egyptian Hieroglyphic Texts, Statues, Reliefs and PaintingsVolume VIII: Objects of Provenance Not Known: Statues by Jaromir Malek, Diana Magee and Elizabeth Miles (Published online by the Griffith Institute)
5. The text of the judicial papyrus can be found online:  http://nefertiti.iwebland.com/texts/judicial_turin_papyrus.htm
6. Digitalegypt page: http://www.digitalegypt.ucl.ac.uk/chronology/ramsesiii.html
7. Tomb KV11 on Osiris.net: http://www.osirisnet.net/tombes/pharaons/ramses3/e_ramses3.htm
8. The coffin and mummy of Ramesses III by Ian Bolton: http://members.tripod.com/~ib205/ramesses_3.html








Last edited: June 2007














Comments: email barta@slu.edu